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500-210 | SP Optical Technology Field Engineer Representative

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500-210 - SP Optical Technology Field Engineer Representative - braindump

Vendor Cisco
Exam Number 500-210
Exam Name SP Optical Technology Field Engineer Representative
Questions 50 Q & A
Recent Update October 16, 2018
Free PDF Download 500-210 Brain Dump
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500-210 exam Dumps Source : SP Optical Technology Field Engineer Representative

Test Code : 500-210
Test Name : SP Optical Technology Field Engineer Representative
Vendor Name : Cisco
Q&A : 50 Real Questions

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Cisco Cisco SP Optical Technology

100G Lambda MSA community adds New individuals and Releases up to date requirements for subsequent era Networks | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Ray Nering, Product manager, Transceiver Modules community, Cisco

On Sept 20, 2018, the 100G Lambda MSA community announced that membership to the MSA has improved from the normal 22 promoters, to encompass an additional 16 contributors. The MSA has been setting up 100G and 400G optical necessities that leverage 100G on a single wavelength to force down cost. As carriers start to recognize the advantage and growing momentum available in the market for 100G per lambda solutions, agencies are becoming a member of the MSA.

also, the MSA announced the unencumber of draft 2.0 of the standards targeting records core and repair issuer purposes for duplex single mode fiber hyperlinks. The MSA specifications cut back the optical component complexity required to transmit 100GE and 400GE.

The three dominant requisites for 100GE deployed in networks these days are the IEEE’s 100GBASE-LR4, CWDM4 MSA and PSM4 MSA. All three are pretty complex from an optical element standpoint to mixture 25G alerts to 100G link. nowadays, 100GE site visitors is customarily deployed in networks with QSFP28 modules, which make the most of a 4x 25Gb/s electrical interface with host ports. That interface makes it very convenient to at once force 4 wavelengths multiplexed together on to a single fiber.

within the early days of 100G know-how, the IEEE designed the 100GBASE-LR4 specification to aid 10km links, and that they decided on the time to make use of LAN-WDM wavelength spacing. That requires controlling the laser wavelength very tightly because they are spaced carefully collectively. here is proven graphically in figure 1. commonly here's accomplished by way of controlling the laser temperature and requires costly hermetic packaging.

determine 1: 100G SMF standards

Later the CWDM4 MSA group got here up with a variation to reduce fees. They precise the laser wavelengths to have a a great deal wider window or tolerance and spaced them some distance apart. This didn’t require the costly packaging that 100GBASE-LR4 does, however they confined the reach to 2km.

Then got here the 100G PSM4 MSA community. Their strategy turned into to use four pairs of fibers and open up the specification for just one laser wavelength window to be very broad. This method eliminated the complexity of distinctive wavelength lasers, multiplexing and de-multiplexing wavelengths nonetheless it introduced complexity of four pairs of fibers to the module and to the interconnecting cable infrastructure, in its place of only 1 pair for LR4 or CWDM4.

As CMOS expertise has developed to smaller geometries enabling greater pace, higher density and better efficiency, advanced signal processing can now be moved inside the pluggable optical modules. The IEEE identified this and got here up with a typical called 100GBASE-DR. This strategy takes the 4x 25G electrical sign from the host and makes use of a DSP to translate that to a PAM-4 signal (determine 2) in its place of the usage of NRZ signals as is performed with LR4, CWDM4 or PSM4. That signal can then be used on a single wavelength that can accommodate broad tolerances and not require a expensive sequence of optical accessories and packaging.

The IEEE distinctive 100GBASE-DR for 500m links. 500m applications are limited to very brief hyperlinks and contains the insertion lack of a restricted number of patch panels. The 100G Lambda MSA prolonged the attain to 2km with 100G-FR. This enables the module to be used not only for longer hyperlinks, but also for infrastructure that can also include a higher number of patch panels or simply greater loss environments. The MSA additionally extended the attain once more to 10km with 100G-LR, addressing the same functions as 100GBASE-LR4.

determine 2: PAM-4 sign

now not handiest do these new 100G requisites reduce the complexity of the optical add-ons interior these modules, reducing the cost of 100GE links, however they additionally permit the bridge between 100G and the migration to 400G. The IEEE leveraged 100GBASE-DR for the 400GBASE-DR4 optical usual. The 400GBASE-DR4 is very nearly 4 parallel 100GBASE-DR in a single module offering 400G connectivity over 500m. This approach additionally allows for 100G breakouts from a 400G port as shown in figure three. At this element in time there isn't any way to accomplish this type of breakout with another 100G module. With CWMD4 or LR4 there is not any compatible 400G module that can deliver this function. operating in breakout, 400GBASE-DR4 without difficulty offers the trade’s maximum density 100G module, 4 100G modules within the house of a QSFP-DD form factor.

it's expected that some producers will additionally produce 4x 100G-FR modules that give the skill to extend the reach of 100G breakouts past 500m reach boundaries of 100GBASE-DR. The MSA has cautiously chosen the necessities for 100G-FR to be a hundred% compatible with 100GBASE-DR for maximum flexibility to end clients.

determine 3: 400GBAS-DR4 Breakout to 100G-FR

The 100G Lambda MSA community also appeared at the latest IEEE 400G requirements. For duplex transmission, the IEEE got here up with 400GBASE-FR8 for 2km and 400GBASE-LR8. These requisites depend on 8 lanes of 50G PAM-4 optical signals on the LAN-WDM wavelength grid, the identical as 100GBASE-LR4. These requirements may have the equal issues as 100GBASE-LR4, tight wavelength windows spaced close collectively, requiring tight wavelength handle and constantly using better charge packaging. The variety of wavelength channels required along with the number of transmitters and receivers and the complexity of the multiplexer and de-multiplexer look expensive. The MSA determined that using the 100G per wavelength as a substitute of 50G (identical strategy as 100G-FR/LR) and using 4 channels on the CWDM wavelength grid with wider window of tolerance supply a lower charge route for 400G. The MSA developed the 400G-FR4 specification for duplex single mode fiber purposes with up to 2km reach.

determine four: 400G requirements

The 100G Lambda MSA has released three up-to-date drafts of their requisites (2.0) for 100G-FR, 100G-LR and 400G-FR4. There continues to be more work to be achieved with 400G-LR4. in the meantime, providers are developing modules with the brand new specifications. i would predict to items released to the market over the next three hundred and sixty five days. equipped or now not right here comes 400G!


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No result found, try new keyword!Networking leader Cisco methods (NASDAQ:CSCO) is a key player in the know-how field. The business said a 6 ... which accelerated 127%. SP Video salary increased 30% for the quarter. Cisco strives ...

Cisco and Vodafone show off cell Transport Networking developments by the use of phase Routing at mobile World Congress | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

BARCELONA, Spain, Feb. 26, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- cellular World Congress - Cisco, along with Vodafone, is demonstrating new community chopping suggestions by the use of section routing this week.

The method may aid to lower and manage latency for top-bandwidth applications operating on Vodafone`s community, to enhance the ordinary entertainment journey for customers streaming video, games and augmented, digital or combined fact streams.

in line with the Cisco visual Networking Index Forecast 2016-2021, via 2021 network traffic from instant and cellular devices will account for more than 63 percent of complete IP traffic and the number of devices connected to IP networks could be 3 times better than the dimension of the international population in 2021. to satisfy this boom favourite for bandwidth and more devices connected to the community, Vodafone has begun to make use of Cisco segment routing technology to simplify its overall transport community operations with the aid of automating core services to more suitable realize and solve traffic jam issues.

phase Routing is an creative IP routing protocol that allows for the transport network to differentiate the style it offers purposes, putting off legacy protocols and making community operations less demanding. using a application defined network for transport, it can be possible to create a low latency `slice` (a virtual route in the transport community), that will be certain chosen forms of site visitors - as an example computerized using or vital health purposes - would all the time select the route with the shortest conclusion-to-end latency.

segment routing additionally improves community resiliency by using `self-curative` to intuitively restoration connectivity in below 50 milliseconds if a controversy happens via rerouting traffic instantly. that allows you to provide enhanced community up-time and permit for faster enhancements.

"Vodafone is smartly advanced in its network transformation experience," stated Yvette Kanouff,  senior vp and typical manager, carrier provider business, Cisco. "segment routing marks yet another illustration of how Vodafone is remodeling its community operations with more application and cloud-powered know-how to deliver imaginative functions quicker and greater efficiently. Demonstrating this know-how in entrance of are living audiences right here this week gives us the opportunity to share the wow ingredient of how together, we're altering the face of networking."

visit the Vodafone booth in corridor 3, #3D30, for the joint demo.

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500-210 exam Dumps Source : SP Optical Technology Field Engineer Representative

Test Code : 500-210
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SP Optical Technology Field Engineer Representative

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The Effects Applied Perpendicular Fields Have on Magnetic Force Microscopy | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Electrical and magnetic properties interact to produce all data storage and logic computing functions known today. In order to engineer such behavior, it is necessary to understand it in depth, and this in turn is aided by the capability to observe the magnetic state of thin films or patterned nanoelements directly, using high resolution imaging.

Asylum Research MFP-3D AFMs have an accessory named the Variable Field Module (VFM3) that is very useful in enabling the direct visualization of magnetic configurations at nanoscale, with the use of magnetic field microscopy (MFM), where the sample is subjected to applied magnetic fields either in-plane or out-of-plane.  

With MFM, which is the preferred tool for such research, a silicon tip coated with a magnetic film is employed in tapping mode. Once each line is measured topographically, it is scanned a second time but with the tip lifted above the topographical features already measured by an offset which is set at a constant value. The offset is typically in tens of nanometers, and lifts the tip above the surface features so that the long-range forces which are acting on the tip, can be quantified. Since the distance remains the same, the difference in the electrostatic and magnetic forces will cause variation in the cantilever oscillation.

Keeping the sample solidly grounded avoids any electrostatic effects. This means only magnetic forces will be at work here. These forces come from the way the tip’s magnetic moment interacts with the magnetic field due to the sample, as shown in Figure 1. With differing field orientation, either repulsive or attractive forces can be expected. This force is analyzed using the phase shift of the oscillation of the cantilever, and the sign shows if the net force is repulsive or attractive, while the magnitude shows the strength. In quantitative terms, the equation is expressed as:

Where is the tip magnetic moment and is the stray magnetic field.1

This application note describes two instances of the use of MFM with Asylum MFP-3D Infinity AFM equipped with VFM3 to assist with the creation of new materials.

Schematic of the magnetic interactions between the magnetic AFM tip and a sample with magnetic domains.

Figure 1. Schematic of the magnetic interactions between the magnetic AFM tip and a sample with magnetic domains.

Example 1

This deals with a methodical examination of films which show perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), that is, the perpendicular alignment of magnetic domains respective to the film’s plane. The film described here is a sputtered thin film with cobalt and nickel (Co/Ni). PMA is useful in allowing the use of a small bit size in hard drives2, as well as reduced power consumption for the next generation of STT-RAM.3 MFM is employed to examine how magnetic domain structures evolve in thin films for which PMA is a function of the applied magnetic field.

This technology was restricted until now in its application because only custom-built AFMs were capable of applying perpendicular fields to the samples while examining them using MFM. The availability of the VFM3 module for use with the MFP-3D Infinity AFM allows the free measurement of these parameters while fields are applied out of plane up to ~±1500 Gauss.

Figure 2 shows one example in which MFM is used to capture images from a sample of Co/Ni thin film which is subjected to an applied perpendicular magnetic field of about 210 Gauss. The color denotes the phase information gathered by MFM, corresponding to the magnetic texture, while the extreme smoothness of the film’s topography is shown by the 3D surface. The contrast seen here is because the magnetic domains have separating walls limiting the ferromagnetic domains.

MFM phase data painted on the 3D topography of a sputtered cobalt/nickel multilayer film under a perpendicular magnetic field of -210 G, 10 μm scan.

Figure 2. MFM phase data painted on the 3D topography of a sputtered cobalt/nickel multilayer film under a perpendicular magnetic field of -210 G, 10 μm scan.

Previously, such experiments were cumbersome and time-consuming. Not only did the field require manual readjustment after each set of images was acquired, but the magnet systems built to order to apply magnetic fields out of plane to the sample during MFM used electromagnets. This meant that quite a bit of heat accumulated during their operation, leading to unacceptable drift during the AFM measurements. This required continuous compensation.

In contrast, the use of the VFM3 module has made these measurements easier and more rapid, since, first of all, permanent magnets are employed for the applied field 4 which prevents Joule heating and so stabilizes the device considerably. The second advantage is the ability to directly control the field strength applied by the VFM3 using the Asylum Research MacroBuilder software. This is a simple tool based on graphical software, which can be used to create macros to make repetitive measurements during AFM.

When these were combined, hundreds of MFM images were acquired automatically with a varying applied magnetic field. The script for the MacroBuilder is just one simple loop which contains increments to the magnetic field as long as the tip does not touch the sample surface, as Figure 3 shows. The tip is then brought into contact with the surface, and during this stage MFM images are acquired for both Amplitude and Phase.

In this study, 190 images were captured in five hours. Between images the field strength underwent incrementation by 5 G. Figure 4 shows a subset of these images, which are important in that they yield direct data on the way the magnetic domains form as the applied magnetic field goes from a negative magnetic saturation to a positive one.

When so many images have to be analyzed, the task may appear forbidding. The MacroBuilder can build automated offline image analysis functionality. As seen in Figure 4, each image had its 2D Fourier transform calculated using an automatic post-processing script. These transforms show that an ordered domain structure came into being before the magnetic field was zeroed. They also yield many details regarding the evolution of periodic and anisotropic domain structure as well as the formation of its period.

Thresholding and masking are used to binarize the images automatically. This permits the formation of the area and the perimeter of the magnetic domains to be examined against the magnetic field. Figure 5 shows plots of the area and perimeter of the domains with respect to each of the 190 field strengths. This reveals a significant variation in the generation of these parameters.

The VFM3 module from Asylum Research will thus help in studying how magnetic domains form in thin films when magnetic fields are applied to them. It is easy to use and shows enhanced productivity, which means reducing the time spent on data acquisition and increasing the time used to research the physical underpinnings of these magnetic materials.

MacroBuilder scripts are simply created using drag-and-drop modules. Here, a single loop was set to repeat 190 times, collecting MFM images after incrementing the field strength by 5 G at each step.

Figure 3. MacroBuilder scripts are simply created using drag-and-drop modules. Here, a single loop was set to repeat 190 times, collecting MFM images after incrementing the field strength by 5 G at each step.

Representative MFM images and corresponding two-dimensional FFTs of the Co/Ni film at different perpendicular field strengths

Figure 4. Representative MFM images and corresponding two-dimensional FFTs of the Co/Ni film at different perpendicular field strengths

Built-in masking functions were used to automatically binarize each of the 190 MFM images and then calculate the corresponding area fraction occupied by the domains and their total domain perimeter. The graphs clearly show that the domain area (top) peaks near -100 G, while the perimeter length (bottom) reaches its maximum near 0 G. This information can be used to better quantify the shape evolution of the domains.

Figure 5. Built-in masking functions were used to automatically binarize each of the 190 MFM images and then calculate the corresponding area fraction occupied by the domains and their total domain perimeter. The graphs clearly show that the domain area (top) peaks near -100 G, while the perimeter length (bottom) reaches its maximum near 0 G. This information can be used to better quantify the shape evolution of the domains.

Example 2

In this study magnetic skyrmions were directly evaluated with AFMs. Data storage demand is constantly growing, and this will probably need a new technical perspective. One solution which is anticipated with great excitement is the use of nanoscale magnetic skyrmions at nanoscale. These are perhaps the tiniest spin textures found in magnetic thin films in the natural world. 5 They can be found within a few nanometers and their motion resembles that of quasiparticles. 6

These particles, called magnetic solitons, are unusually durable when it comes to resisting perturbation because of their magnetic texture topology 7 and this has brought them to the forefront of research into the molecules that have the greatest potential to become the most advanced magnetic bits, capable of data carriage and storage. 6

Here, cobalt-based thin films with an asymmetric structure composed of multiple layers were designed. The films comprised cobalt sandwiched between two heavy metals. This was to ensure that additive chiral interaction occurred at the interface, which is critical in inducing such unique magnetic domains. This interfacial interaction is called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and stabilizes the nanoscale magnetic skyrmions, which are chiral domains of a circular form, by tending to tilt spins in proximity to each other in one particular direction, as seen in Figure 6.

Skyrmions are not magnetic bubbles, which depend on dipoles for their stability, and usually have diameters measuring a few hundred nanometers. Kerr microscopy, which uses magnetic optical methods, is used to acquire images of these bubbles with ease, while skyrmions can only be visualized using imaging tools with higher resolution.

Schematic drawing of a skyrmion in a 2D ferromagnet with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy along the vertical axis. The magnetization is pointing up along the edges and pointing down in the center

Figure 6. Schematic drawing of a skyrmion in a 2D ferromagnet with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy along the vertical axis. The magnetization is pointing up along the edges and pointing down in the center

One example of such a tool is the magnetization-sensitive scanning x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM), using this means a resolution can be achieved within 30 nm, and which magnetic domains within these multiple layers were first imaged. Once the behavior of these nanoscale circular domains in perpendicular applied magnetic fields was known, it was shown that they were actually magnetic skyrmions, and the stabilizing force was actually a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction of large amplitude.8

The finding of individual skyrmions in a stable state with dimensions below 100 nm at ambient temperature in a material suitable for such technology, was instrumental in sparking research into their applications in actual devices which could become a reality very soon. However, STXM can be carried out only in a synchrotron facility and thus the time available for such studies is restricted by the availability of such centers.

This is another immense advantage of the Asylum VFM3 module, which could be a very useful alternative to the use of STXM in these experiments. In fact, most STXM measurements and observations can be repeated as a routine and at high speed using various multilayer systems in Asylum laboratories, because of factors such as the sensitivity that the MFP-3D Infinity AFM offers to MFM performance, the out-of-plane magnetic field application and adjustment possible with the VFM3, and the availability of automation for this system.

Figure 7 shows this achievement, which has allowed researchers to overcome the obstacles posed by the limited time they get at synchrotron facilities.

Figure 7. Comparison of STXM (left) and MFM (right) images of out-of-plane magnetization in a Ir/Co/Pt multilayer film under an applied perpendicular field of 80 G. Scan size 5 μm. MFM images easily reproduce the same qualitative domain structure at higher resolution.

Figure 7. Comparison of STXM (left) and MFM (right) images of out-of-plane magnetization in a Ir/Co/Pt multilayer film under an applied perpendicular field of 80 G. Scan size 5 μm. MFM images easily reproduce the same qualitative domain structure at higher resolution.

A further advance towards using the skyrmions in data storage is to be able to understand how they behave at nanoscale. This has been initiated using pads limited using e-beam lithography with the diameters ranging from 400 nm to 1 micron. The early results acquired with these structures is shown in Figure 8, with STXM images being shown alongside, so that they can be compared with those obtained by MFM.

It is obvious that as the pad diameter varies, the behavior of the magnetic domain also changes dramatically, when subjected to perpendicular magnetic fields, as researchers had already predicted using micromagnetic simulations. The restriction within a geometrical area in combination with the perpendicular magnetic field led to the capability of stabilizing single skyrmions in a suitable structure.

MFM imaging reveals domain behavior as a function of pad diameter and applied perpendicular magnetic field. Each MFM image of nine pads (top and middle rows) was acquired in about 20 minutes each, compared to 60-90 minutes each for the STXM images at single pads, effectively increasing data throughput by 30-50X.

Figure 8. MFM imaging reveals domain behavior as a function of pad diameter and applied perpendicular magnetic field.Each MFM image of nine pads (top and middle rows) was acquired in about 20 minutes each, compared to 60-90 minutes each for the STXM images at single pads, effectively increasing data throughput by 30-50X.

Such instances are extremely apt to show the ease with which the use of MFM on the MFP-3D Infinity AFM along with the VFM3 module allows magnetic domains to be imaged at nanoscale. This is done under the influence of applied magnetic fields, while achieving a resolution hitherto only found with a synchrotron facility. Research in this area is bound to advance rapidly because of the removal of the limitations on time available at a synchrotron. In addition, the potential to automate the whole process from acquisition of images to data processing will lead to higher productivity.

References
  • Hubert and R.  Schäfer, Magnetic Domains:  The Analysis of Magnetic Microstructures (Springer, 1998).
  • A.  Moser, K.  Takano, D.  T.  Margulies, M.  Albrecht, Y.  Sonobe, Y.  Ikeda, S.  Sun, and E.  E.  Fullerton, J.  Phys.  D35, R157 (2002).
  • S.  Mangin, D.  Ravelosona, J.  A.  Katine, M.  J.  Carey, B.  D.  Terris, E.  E.  Fullerton, Nat.  Mat.5, 210-215 (2006).
  • R.  Proksch, E.  Runge, P.  K.  Hansma, S.  Foss and B.  Walsh, J.  Appl.  Phys.78, 3303 (1995).
  • S.  Mühlbauer, B.  Binz, F.  Jonietz, C.  Pfleiderer, A.  Rosch, A.  Neubauer, R.  Georgii, and P.  Böni.  Science323, 915-919 (2009).
  • A.  Fert, V.  Cros, and J.  Sampaio.  Nat.  Nanotech. 8, 152-156  (2013).
  • N.  Nagaosa and Y.  Tokura.  Nat.  Nanotech.8, 899-911 (2013).
  • C.  Moreau-Luchaire, et al.  Nat.  Nanotech.  Published  online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2015.313 (2016)
  • This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Asylum Research - An Oxford Instruments Company.

    For more information on this source, please visit Asylum Research - An Oxford Instruments Company.


    Weir RFID Technology Reduces Iron Fleet Maintenance Time by 90 Percent, Latest Technology Addresses Remote Location Challenges | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    April 30, 2018 07:00 ET | Source: Weir Oil & Gas

    photo-release

    Weir's SPM® Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and RFID Mobile App

    Weir’s RFID AMP technology allows 900 pieces of iron to be tagged and accounted for in less than 60 minutes, complete with certificates– a 90 percent reduction over outdated inventory efforts.

    Weir Oil & Gas

    HOUSTON, April 30, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Weir Oil & Gas, a leading upstream provider of pressure pumping and pressure control equipment and services, today introduced its second-generation SPM® Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and RFID Mobile App at OTC 2018. The new RFID enhancements enable flawless iron fleet maintenance in the field, even in the most remote locations plagued with low Internet or cellular connections.

    Maintaining an iron fleet has traditionally been a time-intensive, labor-intensive and error-prone process that relies on tedious manual data collection and physically storing printed certificates. This inefficient approach results in millions of dollars lost due to the inability to produce required certificates for uninterrupted operation.

    For a 900-piece fleet of iron, it typically takes three employees three full work days to account for all of the iron in the field. However, Weir’s RFID AMP technology allows 900 pieces of iron to be tagged and accounted for in less than 60 minutes, complete with certificates – a 90 percent reduction over outdated inventory efforts. Relying on Weir’s optical character recognition technology, operators can accurately upload certificates – regardless of the issuing inspection organization – into a single storage location in the cloud, allowing for immediate retrieval to avoid unnecessary downtime. 

    New enhancements to Weir’s RFID AMP technology include the ability to scan certificates offline for uninterrupted work flow, regardless of Internet or cellular signal strength, use enhanced asset details to see the status of items operators wish to edit on Weir’s mobile app, and write new tags for items even when operators are away from a connected network.

    Weir’s proprietary RFID Mobile App, available for iPhone and Android devices, supports and speeds testing and inspection processes by identifying assets by serial number, which allows personnel to perform an inventory of parts, instantly recall last certificates filed and organize the iron in the database based on its assigned unit. Operators can track every piece of iron anywhere in the world at any moment. The RFID Mobile App also eliminates human error involved in manually tracking iron in the field.    

    “Remote locations suffer from poor and inconsistent Wi-Fi and cellular signal strength,” said Paul Coppinger, President of Weir Oil & Gas. “The second generation of our RFID technology enables operators to quickly and accurately maintain an iron fleet without being hindered by poor signal strength.”    

    Companies required to show inspection certificates on the jobsite can quickly access them through the RFID Mobile App and email them to any exploration and production company representative. This eliminates the time-consuming task of searching stacks of paper for certificates, allowing operators to focus on productivity.

    Weir is committed to furthering technology that offers customers greater visibility into their pressure pumping and pressure control systems. The SPM® RFID enhancements complements Weir’s Pressure Control Intelligent Systems, which effectively removes the guesswork from managed pressure drilling and flow back operations.

    Today’s announcement is part of Weir’s participation in the 2018 Offshore Technology Conference at NRG Park. Throughout the conference, Weir is demonstrating its innovations to improve reliability and efficiency for oil and gas operations in Booth 3438.

    About Weir Oil & Gas

    Weir Oil & Gas provides superior products and service solutions to make our customers more efficient and lower total cost of ownership.  

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    Roles and Responsibilities of NIST in the Development of Documentary Standards | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    CMSC

    Published: Thursday, October 4, 2018 - 16:02

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST*) is a nonregulatory federal agency of the Department of Commerce and is the national metrology institute of the United States. NIST’s role in the development of voluntary consensus standards (VCS) is rooted in many policy decisions and government directives that happened during the 1980s and 1990s. NIST has been a leader in the development of many standards, including documentary standards,† ever since its founding in 1901.

    The Dimensional Metrology Group (DMG) at NIST develops, performs, and delivers measurements, and physical and documentary standards that promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness. NIST DMG has been involved in many standards committees that are a part of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), American Society for Mechanical Engineering (ASME), and more lately, ASTM. Recently, DMG, along with various other organizations, was involved in the development of an ASTM documentary standard for 3D imaging systems. NIST led the effort and was a major contributor in developing this standard, and this activity led to the publication of the ASTM E3125-17 standard in 2017. This standards development process was systematic per the rules and regulations of ASTM, which in turn enabled a balanced approach that addressed the concerns of stakeholders while maintaining their involvement and establishing a consensus.

    This paper describes the basis for NIST’s authority to participate and drive the development of documentary standards. The paper will then describe the role of DMG in the standards development process. This includes some of the technical and procedural challenges faced by the working group that published the ASTM E3125-17 3D imaging standard.

    Standards development and adoption by government agencies

    Many government agencies have been involved in the development of standards to achieve their organizational missions. The Department of Defense (DoD) was known to have over 21,000 government unique standards (GUS) in use prior to the year 1997.1 In 1994, then Secretary of Defense William J. Perry wrote a policy memorandum, now known as the “Perry Memo.”2,3 This memorandum highlighted the increasing costs of relying on GUS and directs DoD to use non-government performance standards for its procurement process.

    The non-government performance standards mentioned in the “Perry Memo” are voluntary consensus standards (VCS) that are developed by standards development organizations (SDOs) using agreed-upon procedures. The next few subsections will detail the history of SDOs, standards development in the United States, and how they shaped the events that transpired before and after the “Perry Memo.”

    *Note: The names of the organizations mentioned in this paper varied throughout their history, but will be referred to in thispaper with their current name unless otherwise specified. ASTM International will referred to as ASTM in this paper.

    †Note: According to ISO, a documentary standard is defined as a document, established by consensus, and approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of optimum degree of order in each context.

    2.1 Consolidation of the standards development activity in the United StatesPrior to the 1900s, there were many organizations like the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and ASTM that led the development of standards for the greater good of society. These professional organizations took up the task of addressing various safety and commercial interests of that era. Soon, it became evident that there was a need to coordinate the standards development activities in the United States. In 1918 five engineering societies and three government agencies came together to establish an organization that is known today as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The purpose of ANSI’s founding was to coordinate standards development, approve national consensus standards, and halt user confusion on acceptability. The five engineering societies that founded ANSI were the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers (AIME), the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the ASME, and the ASTM. These five societies, which were themselves core members of the United Engineering Society (UES), subsequently invited the U.S. Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce to join them as founders.4 The U.S. Departments of War and Navy eventually became the U.S. DoD; the U.S. Department of Commerce is the parent organization of NIST.

    ANSI was founded as a private nonprofit organization and does not develop any standards, but accredits and assesses the competence of the numerous SDOs.5 ANSI also approves individual documentary standards developed by SDOs and designates them as American National Standards (ANS).6 ANS-designated standards undergo additional scrutiny that involves accreditation of consensus procedures, neutral oversight, approval process, appeals process, and procedural audit. These additional requirements generally align with the policies set forth by OMB A-119. However, it is up to the SDO to consider designating an approved standard as an ANS by following ANSI’s procedures. As of 2015, there were more than 240 ANSI-accredited SDOs, over 100,000 VCS published in the United States, and over 11,000 ANS. For example, the ASME Y14.5M-1994 for “Dimensioning and Tolerancing” is designated as an ANS. ANSI also serves as the U.S. national standards body representative to ISO and many other regional and international standards activities.7,8,9

    There are hundreds of national and international SDOs around the world. Some examples of SDOs accredited by ANSI are ASTM, ASME, IEEE, and Underwriter Laboratories (UL). In many countries a centralized body drives the standards activities, which typically is that country’s government and is considered a top-down approach. In the United States, the private sector drives the standards development activities, which is considered a bottom-up approach. Many SDOs use VCS development processes that ensure due process, such as requiring openness, balance, appeals, and consensus.

    2.2 U.S. government directivesThe U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued the circular OMB A-119, in 1980, titled “Federal participation in the development and use of voluntary standards,” which was then revised in October 1982. This was considered a groundbreaking policy. The revised circular in 1982 directed federal agencies to participate in SDOs and rely on VCS not just in procurement activities, but also in its regulations. However, the usage of GUS continued, and as of 1996 there were still about 34000 GUS used by the federal government.10

    Subsequent to the “Perry Memo” in 1994, the policy on usage of VCS for federal agencies was reviewed. This led to the passing of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA, public law 104-113).11 The NTTAA incorporated many of the policy directives of OMB A-119 into a law. OMB A-119 underwent three more revisions since the first revision in 1982.12 The 1993 revision13 reflected the U.S. trade obligations, the 1998 revision14 was updated to reflect the requirements of the NTTAA, and the 2016 revision reflected the changes in numerous federal policies, trade obligations, and practices.15

    The directive for all the federal agencies, including NIST, to participate in the development and adoption of VCS comes from the NTTAA and OMB A-119. The NTTAA mandates that all federal agencies adopt VCS wherever possible, except where inconsistent with law or impractical, and to avoid the development of GUS. An example of these directives is DoD replacing a government standard, MIL-L-13762 for lead alloy coatings, developed in 1983, with a consensus standard, ASTM-A308 in 1997.16 GUS are still used by the U.S. federal government for safety, security, and specialized military equipment where appropriate. The primary purpose of NTTAA and OMB A-119 was to eliminate the cost of developing GUS and rely on VCS for such needs wherever possible. As of fiscal year 2016, there are only about 70 GUS reported in lieu of existing VCS used by federal government agencies (excluding DoD and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) since reporting began in 1997.17

    There are many more GUS that are presently in use mostly due to the lack of an equivalent VCS, older GUS that have not been replaced by VCS, or GUS developed due to statutory requirements. For example, the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) published by NIST are government standards that are mandated by law, which in its present form address information security-related issues in the federal government.18 Over the years, many FIPS standards were withdrawn,19 and presently only nine FIPS standards are still in use.20 Another example of usage of GUS by a federal agency is the “Fire protection for shipyards” standard used by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) instead of available VCS. According to OSHA, it was determined that there was no single VCS that covered all the topics for its final ruling and warrants the usage of a GUS.17

    Though the adoption of VCS is voluntary in nature, VCS can become a law if government agencies adopt them into regulations by a process known as incorporation by reference (IBR). For example, many standards developed by ASTM and UL have been adopted by federal, state, and local governments or codified into law.21 Many VCS documents are not free of charge and the SDOs may hold the copyrights. However, adoption of VCS into regulations through IBR by federal agencies is permitted as long as the standard is “reasonably available” to the interested parties. The criteria for a VCS being “reasonably available” is detailed in the Office of the Federal Register IBR Handbook.22

    2.3 Role of the Department of Commerce and NISTThe U.S. Department of Commerce promotes job creation, economic growth, sustainable development, and improved living standards of all Americans by working in partnership with business, universities, and workers.23,24 It accomplishes its mission through direct assistance to businesses and communities; targeted investments in world-class research, science, and technology; and through various programs that foster innovation, entrepreneurship, and competitiveness. NIST is one of the 12 bureaus of DOC, and its mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life.25 NIST has always been at the forefront of development of documentary standards, but it is not an SDO.‡26 With the emergence of NTTAA and OMB A-119 directives, NIST was also assigned the role of the coordinating standards and conformity assessment activities and reporting government-wide progress annually to OMB.

    2.4 NIST Dimensional Metrology Group activities in documentary standardsThe Dimensional Metrology Group at NIST has been leading and supporting the development of many documentary standards for over 60 years. DMG works with manufacturers, users, and other stakeholders on committees of various SDOs in this process. A considerable amount of DMG's research and development efforts supports the development of these documentary standards, primarily as part of ISO, ASME, and ASTM. NIST DMG staff also hold leadership positions in about 20 standards committees that are a part of various SDOs, like ASME, ISO, and ASTM. Some of the recent examples of documentary standards led by DMG were the ASME B89 series, ASTM E57, and ISO 10360 series of standards. Examples of documentary standards from these activities include ASME B89.4.19-200627, the ISO 10360-10:2016 standard28 for laser trackers, and the ASTM E3125-17 standard29 for laser scanners.

    Background of the ASTM E3125-17 3D imaging standard

    The ASTM E3125-17 standard describes the performance evaluation methods for a class of 3D imaging systems called terrestrial laser scanners (TLS). An overview of the ASTM E3125-17 standard was reported by Rachakonda et. al.30 TLS are used in a variety of applications, including reverse engineering, surveying, large-scale assembly, and historical artifact preservation. TLS were investigated at NIST for use in a variety of applications starting in the late 1990s. NIST recognized the potential impact of these instruments in a range of industrial applications and that standards were needed for these class of instruments. Therefore, NIST organized three workshops between 2003 and 2006 that brought together instrument manufacturers, end users, and other organizations to determine the needs and interests of all the stakeholders.31,32 The participants of these workshops agreed that the development of documentary standards would benefit TLS users and would help promote widespread use of the technology.

    The process of selecting ASTM as an SDO for 3D imaging standards was also achieved through a consensus process by participants of the NIST workshop in 2006.32 Several SDOs were initially considered, and the choices were narrowed down to two SDOs. These SDOs were sent questionnaires about their standards development process. The responses were then sent to the participants of the workshop, who were asked to vote for an SDO. A clear majority of the participants selected ASTM as the SDO. After this workshop, the ASTM E57 committee was formally established in 2006 to address issues related to 3D imaging systems, such as TLS and optical range cameras.33 This committee presently has multiple subcommittees, as illustrated in figure 1. Each subcommittee may have multiple work items, which when successful are published as documentary standards. As of the writing of this paper, there are eight published standards under E57, including five standards under the E57.02 subcommittee on test methods.34

    ‡Note: Only one laboratory of NIST, the Information Technology Laboratory (NIST/ITL), is accredited by ANSI as an SDO and primarily retains this status due to various historical reasons that precede NTTAA.

    After establishing the ASTM E57 committee, a working group started work on evaluating the ranging capability of 3D imaging systems, as this was the fundamental measurement of these systems. In 2015, this working group published the ASTM E2938-15 standard for 3D imaging systems to evaluate relative-range.35 The scope of this standard was limited to the relative range because the main source of error was from the range measurement of the instrument.

    In 2013, another working group, WK43218, was convened under ASTM E57 to address the volumetric performance of the TLS. This was because both range and angular errors contribute to the instrument errors when any point-to-point distance is measured. This effort was led by DMG staff, who had considerable experience on laser trackers due to their efforts toward ASME B89.4.19-2006 standard.27 Laser trackers and TLS are very similar in construction, and both these instruments were studied extensively by Muralikrishnan et.al.36,37

    Figure 1: ASTM organization structure showing published standards under E57.02

    NIST’s role in this standards development process was as a facilitator and provider of subject matter expertise on TLS and dimensional metrology instrumentation. In these roles, NIST could not exert any more authority than other stakeholders in influencing the direction of the standard. All the decisions that were taken during this process had to be agreeable to all the stakeholders, and it was NIST’s responsibility to facilitate consensus. NIST DMG staff worked through both technical and procedural hurdles to achieve this task. As part of the ASTM subcommittee, DMG staff found it necessary to consult many of the guidelines and procedures set forth by ASTM to handle many of the issues that cropped up during this process. Some of the issues encountered by the WK43218 working group are described next.

    3.1 StakeholdersMany of the stakeholders that constituted WK43218 were a part of the working group that published ASTM E2938-15. Their objectives remained the same: to standardize the performance evaluation of TLS, but in the entire work volume of the instrument. NIST publicized the activities of this working group at various venues, websites, conferences, and symposia, and invited participants to contribute to this effort. Participants of this working group consisted of national metrology institutes, instrument manufacturers, distributors, end users, and other subject matter experts.

    3.2 Technical challengesThere were many technical challenges during the development of the ASTM E3125-17 standard. NIST DMG was uniquely positioned to address these challenges due to its technical expertise, facilities, and resources. Two of the notable hurdles were the availability of artifacts and algorithms to process TLS data. If not chosen appropriately, both the artifact and the algorithms could introduce an error in the performance metrics that would not be representative of the instrument.

    Spheres were chosen as ideal targets for this activity for reasons that are detailed in two technical papers.38, 39 The challenge was the availability of commercial spheres that were suitable to be measured both by the instrument under test and the reference instrument. Early on, it was decided that the test procedures at NIST would be using a laser tracker as the reference instrument. Measuring large reference lengths was challenging on stationary CMMs, and laser trackers provided a way to perform in-situ measurements. A variety of artifacts were considered by the ASTM working group; the breakthrough came with the availability of a commercial artifact known as an “integration sphere,” depicted in figure 2. This sphere had a circularity of < 10 µm, and it was designed to be measured by both the TLS and the laser tracker.

    Algorithms to process the TLS data were the second major challenge. As increasing amounts of data were being collected, it was observed that sphere datasets were littered with a lot of phantom or spurious points that did not belong to the sphere. The location of these spurious points varied based on the instrument and its ranging technology and had to be excluded. A variety of algorithms were considered for this activity and an algorithm known as the “cone-cylinder algorithm” was developed for this activity. This algorithm resulted in a minimal number of spurious points. The details of these algorithms were reported by Rachakonda et. al.40

    Following are some of the other technical challenges that were encountered by this working group:1. Instrument downtime, due to repair, servicing, or calibration2. Proprietary nature of instrument’s construction and data format3. Lack of resources, facilities, equipment, software, and artifacts to independently examine the technical issues by all the stakeholders

    Figure 2: Commercial sphere used on the grid

    3.3 Procedural challenges

    One of the major procedural challenge happened at the start of this activity: It was to define the scope of the standard. This is one of the most common challenges encountered by many working groups that develop documentary standards. The ASTM E2938-15 standard can be used to evaluate any 3D imaging system; however, ASTM E3125-17 limits the standard only for 3D imaging systems that have a spherical coordinate system such as TLS. This was because the TLS error sources were well understood prior to the start of the standards activity.36,37 Based on this work, the scope was limited to using test positions that were sensitive to the instrument error sources. The scope was also limited to the use of reference lengths instead of consistency checks, and the use of targets that have optical and mechanical properties suitable for a TLS to scan the target in its test volume.

    A significant procedural challenge that was encountered during this activity was new stakeholders participating in the midst of development of the standard, and stakeholders participating on an intermittent basis. Concerns about the direction of the standard and the requisite time commitment are a couple of factors that affect stakeholder participation. A considerable amount of effort was expended to satisfy stakeholders about the direction of the standard.

    One other challenge was negative votes from nonparticipating members of the ASTM E57 subcommittee. For a standard to be approved, it must be voted on by the subcommittee members. ASTM requires responses from about 60 percent of the subcommittee members, and 90 percent of those responses must be in favor for the standard to be approved. All the negative votes had to be addressed per ASTM procedures. The negative votes were discussed at length to determine if they were persuasive, and technical responses were drafted. The recommended changes to the proposed standard were then submitted to the subcommittee for approval. Once approved, the standard had to be re-balloted because some of the changes were substantial and not editorial.

    Following are some of the other procedural challenges that were encountered by this working group:1. Lack of sustained interest from subject matter experts.2. Long lead times for procurement, instrument repairs, and manuscript publication3. Organizational budgetary cycles not matching the standards development life cycle

    Summary

    NIST has historically been a leader in supporting the development of many documentary standards. As new market-driven requirements emerge, NIST provides its expertise to both the private industry and the U.S. government in the development of VCS. In this context, this paper describes NIST's role, which is defined by its statutory authority and further set out in the NTTAA and OMB A-119. The paper then describes some of the challenges faced during the development of one VCS, ASTM E3125, that was developed according ASTM rules and regulations.

    DisclaimerCommercial equipment and materials may be identified to specify certain procedures. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement by NIST, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

    AcknowledgementsThe authors would like to thank all the participants of ASTM WK43218 whose contributions made the ASTM E3125-17 a robust documentary standard for TLSs. The authors would also like to thank Geraldine Cheok of the NIST Engineering Laboratory; David Alderman, Mary Donaldson, and Warren Merkel of the NIST Standards Coordination Office; and Michael Hogan of NIST ITL for their helpful discussions, document review, and feedback regarding voluntary consensus standards.

    References1. M. Donaldson, N. Rioux. “Fifteenth Annual Report on Federal Agency Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and Conformity Assessment,” NISTIR 7857 https://standards.gov/nttaa/resources/nttaa_ar_2011.pdf (Accessed on 6/6/2018).2. W. Perry, “A New Way of Doing Business,” June, 1994, https://www.sae.org/standardsdev/military/milperry.htm (Accessed on 6/6/2018).3. J. Gansler, W. Lucyshyn, “Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS): Doing it Right,” http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a494143.pdf (Accessed 6/6/2018).4. History of the American National Standards Institute: https://www.ansi.org/about_ansi/introduction/history?menuid=1 (Accessed on 6/6/2018).5. Overview of the U.S. Standardization System, Second Edition, 2007, American National Standards Institute, https://share.ansi.org/Shared%20Documents/News%20and%20Publications/Brochures/U.S.%20Standardization%20System-07.pdf (Accessed 6/6/2018).6. ANSI Essential Requirements: Due process requirements for American National Standards, https://www.ansi.org/essentialrequirements/ (Accessed on 6/6/2018).7. ISO Programs—Overview: https://www.ansi.org/standards_activities/iso_programs/overview (Accessed on 6/6/2018).8. NISTIR 8007: A Review of USA Participation in ISO and IEC, http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.8007 (Accessed on 6/6/2018).9. MOU between ANSI and NIST, https://share.ansi.org/Shared%20Documents/About%20ANSI/Memoranda%20of%20Understanding/ansinist_mou.pdf (Accessed 6/6/2018).10. NIST SP 806, 1996 edition: Standards Activities of Organizations in the United States, https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication806e1996.pdf (Accessed 6/6/2018).11. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995, https://www.nist.gov/standardsgov/national-technology-transfer-and-advancement-act-1995.12. OMB Circular A-119: Federal Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Standards (1982 revision): 9.13. OMB Circular A-119: Federal Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Standards (1993 revision), https://clintonwhitehouse1.archives.gov/White_House/EOP/OMB/html/circulars/a119/a119.html (Accessed 6/6/2018).14. OMB Circular A-119: Federal Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment Activities (1998 revision), https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Circular-119-1.pdf (Accessed 6/6/2018).15. OMB Circular A-119: Federal Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment Activities (2016 revision): https://www.nist.gov/sites/default/files/revised_circular_a-119_as_of_01-22-2016.pdf (Accessed on 6/6/2018).16. Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards. Part 2. Numerical Listing, http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA273295 (Accessed on 6/6/2018).17. FY 2016 Government Unique Standards used in Lieu of Voluntary Consensus Standards, https://standards.gov/NTTAA/resources/FY2016_GUSs_used_in_lieu_of_VCSs.pdf (Accessed on 6/6/2018)18. FIPS Pub 199: Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/NIST.FIPS.199.pdf (Accessed on 6/6/2018).19. Announcing Approval of the Withdrawal of Ten Federal Information Processing Standards, https://csrc.nist.gov/News/2008/Announcing-Approval-of-the-Withdrawal-of-Ten-FIP-S (Accessed on 6/6/2018).20. Current FIPS, https://www.nist.gov/itl/current-fips (Accessed on 6/6/2018).21. Safety and Health Regulations for Longshoring—Personal Protective Equipment, https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10493 (Accessed on 6/6/2018).22. IBR Handbook, 2017, https://www.archives.gov/files/federal-register/write/handbook/ibr.pdf (Accessed on 6/6/2018).23. The Commerce Mission Statement: http://www.osec.doc.gov/bmi/budget/strtgc/Aintro.pdf (Accessed on 6/6/2018).24. The Department of Commerce Budget in Brief: http://osec.doc.gov/bmi/Budget/FY14BIB/ENTIREBIB.pdf (Accessed on 6/6/2018).25. NIST Mission, Vision, Core Competencies, and Core Values, https://www.nist.gov/about-nist/our-organization/mission-vision-values (Accessed on 6/6/2018) 10.26. ANSI Accreditation of ITL: https://www.nist.gov/itl/ansi-accreditation-itl (Accessed on 6/6/2018).27. Performance Evaluation of Laser-Based Spherical Coordinate Measurement Systems, https://www.asme.org/products/codes-standards/b89419-2006-performance-evaluation-laserbased (Accessed on 6/6/2018).28. ISO 10360-10:2016—“Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Acceptance and reverification tests for coordinate measuring systems (CMS)—Part 10: Laser trackers for measuring point-to-point distances,” https://www.iso.org/standard/56662.html (Accessed on 6/6/2018).29. ASTM E3125-17 Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Point-to-Point Distance Measurement Performance of Spherical Coordinate 3D Imaging Systems in the Medium Range, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1520/E3125-17 (Accessed on 6/6/2018).30. P. Rachakonda, B. Muralikrishnan, K. Shilling, D. Sawyer, G. Cheok. “An Overview of Activities at NIST Towards the Proposed ASTM E57 3D Imaging System Point-to-point Distance Standard,” Journal of the CMSC, October 2017.31. Cheok, G., “NISTIR 7266: Proceedings of the 2nd NIST LADAR performance evaluation workshop, March 15–16, 2005,” https://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.7266 (Accessed on 6/6/2018).32. Cheok, G. “NISTIR 7357: Proceedings of the 3rd NIST workshop on the performance evaluation of 3D imaging systems, March 2–3, 2006,” https://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.7357 (Accessed on 6/6/2018).33. ASTM E57 Committee on 3D Imaging Systems, https://www.astm.org/COMMITTEE/E57.htm (Accessed on 5/18/2018).34. ASTM Subcommittee E57.02 on Test Methods, https://www.astm.org/COMMIT/SUBCOMMIT/E5702.htm (Accessed on 5/18/2018).35. ASTM E2938-15 Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Relative-Range Measurement Performance of 3D Imaging Systems in the Medium Range, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1520/E2938-15 (Accessed on 6/6/2018).36. B. Muralikrishnan, D. Sawyer, et al. “ASME B89.4.19 Performance Evaluation Tests and Geometric Misalignments in Laser Trackers,” Journal of Research (NIST), 114, 21-35 (2009).37. B. Muralikrishnan, M. Ferrucci, D. Sawyer, et al. “Volumetric performance evaluation of a laser scanner based on geometric error model,” Precision Engineering, 40, pp. 139–150, 2015.38. Muralikrishnan, B., Shilling, M., Rachakonda, P., Ren, W., Lee, V., Sawyer, D. “Toward the development of a documentary standard for derived-point to derived-point distance performance evaluation of spherical coordinate 3D imaging systems,” Journal of Manufacturing Systems, vol. 37, part 2, Oct. 2015, pp. 550–557 11.39. Rachakonda, P., Muralikrishnan, B., Shilling, M., Cheok, G., Lee, V., Blackburn, C., Everett, D., Sawyer, D. “Targets for relative range error measurement of 3D imaging systems,” Journal of the CMSC, vol. 12, no. 1, Spring 2017.40. Rachakonda P, Muralikrishnan B, Cournoyer L, Cheok G, Lee V, Shilling K, Sawyer D. “Methods and considerations to determine sphere center from terrestrial laser scanner point cloud data,” Measurement Science and Technology 28(10):105001 (2017), https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/aa8011 (Accessed on 6/6/2018).



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