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A2040-410 | Assessment - IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition Application Development

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Vendor IBM
Exam Number A2040-410
Exam Name Assessment - IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition Application Development
Questions 116 Q & A
Recent Update November 9, 2018
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A2040-410 exam Dumps Source : Assessment - IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition Application Development

Test Code : A2040-410
Test Name : Assessment - IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition Application Development
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 116 Real Questions

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IBM Assessment - IBM Notes

IBM acquires crimson Hat | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

developing Story

IBM has purchased open supply, cloud software company red Hat for $34 billion in cash and debt.  The deal sees IBM having a bet large on the cloud, particularly cloud features, that mix on-premises and cloud-based architectures. red Hat might be a distinct unit within IBM’s Hybrid Cloud group, and it will continue to center of attention on open-supply application. The acquisition is anticipated to close within the latter half of 2019.

Assessing IBM’s $34 billion red Hat acquisition

As you appear at the $34 billion IBM-purple Hat deal introduced yesterday, in case you comply with the business carefully, it looks like a great move, as a minimum on its face. It may be years earlier than we bear in mind the genuine value of it for IBM (or lack thereof, reckoning on how it in the end goes). The questions stands then, is that this a savvy circulation, a desperate one or most likely slightly of each. It seems, it depends on whom you ask.

For starters, there's the sheer sum of money involved, a 63 p.c top class on Friday’s closing price of just under $117 a share. IBM spent $a hundred ninety a share, but as Ray Wang, founder and chief analyst at Constellation analysis mentioned, crimson Hat didn’t always need to be sold, so IBM had to overpay to get their company.

Wang sees cloud, Linux and protection because the huge drivers on IBM’s part. “IBM is doubling down on the cloud, but they are also going for a grab in Linux for his or her greatest and most important open supply communities and a few of the newer tech on purple Hat protection,” he instructed TechCrunch. He acknowledges that it’s an important top rate for the inventory, but he believes IBM wants the M&A motion to drive down client acquisition fees and pressure up go promote.

photo: Ron Miller

IBM is putting a big wager right here says Dharmesh Thakker, widespread associate at Battery Ventures, believing it to be worth 30x its latest salary in the next one year. “obviously, the hybrid cloud chance that we now have been engaged on the last few years, is true and IBM/Cisco/HP/Dell all desire a piece of this motion going forward because the $300B in datacenter spend receives dislocated by using public and hybrid cloud companies,” Thakker defined in a press release.

He believes this deal may definitely trigger a new set of mega mergers between the typical tech carriers and cloud native, container and DevOps companies over the next few months.

IBM CEO Ginni Rometty was positively giddy on the potentialities of a combined IBM-crimson Hat in a name with analysts and press this morning, declaring that most effective 20 p.c of business workloads had been moved to the cloud. She sees a big possibility, one she tasks to be price $1 trillion by 2020. holding in mind you should take market projections with a grain of salt, this is absolutely a large market and one which Oracle and Microsoft have additionally centered.

She noted that crimson Hat was a rare enterprise indeed. “pink Hat by itself has been a high value company and has done a very good job with potent increase, is incredibly profitable and generates money. There aren't many agencies available that seem like that during this area,” Rometty spoke of.

Slide: IBM

Dan Scholnick, universal partner at Trinity Ventures, whose investments have included New Relic and Docker, changed into not terribly impressed with the deal, believing it smacked of desperation on IBM’s half.

“IBM is a declining company that in some way should become primary within the cloud era. pink Hat isn't the reply. red Hat’s company facilities around an working equipment, which is a layer of the technology stack that has been absolutely commoditized by using cloud. (in case you use AWS, that you can get Amazon’s OS for free, so why would you pay purple Hat?) pink Hat has NO story for cloud,” he claimed in an announcement.

That could not be a wholly fair assessment. whereas purple Hat commercial enterprise Linux is a large part of the company’s revenue, it’s now not the handiest piece. Over the ultimate couple of years it has moved into Kubernetes and containerization and has grown the cloud native facet of the enterprise alongside RHEL.

definitely, Forrester analyst Dave Bartoletti sees the cloud native piece as being key here. “The combined company has a leading Kubernetes and container-primarily based cloud-native construction platform, and a lots broader open supply middleware and developer equipment portfolio than both company one after the other. whereas any acquisition of this measurement will take time to play out, the mixed enterprise will make certain to reshape the open supply and cloud structures marketplace for years to return,” he observed.

image: IBM

Wang believes the deal may hinge on how lengthy crimson Hat CEO Jim Whitehurst, who had led the business for over a decade, stays with the unit. in line with IBM, they are going to hold the purple Hat manufacturer and function it as an independent entity internal massive Blue. “If Whitehurst doesn’t stick round for awhile, the deal could go south,” he noted. however the company might dangle the CEO job when Rometty decides to go away as incentive to reside.

Regardless, Wall highway became no longer entirely happy with IBM’s circulate with their stock down all day. for sure the sixty three % premium IBM paid for the inventory has pushed pink Hat better nowadays.

The deal should circulate shareholder muster, but given the top class IBM has offered, it’s hard to believe they would turn it down. moreover, considering that these agencies operate internationally, they're subject to the international regulatory approval manner. They received’t officially come together except at the least the second half of next year on the soonest. That’s once we may start to study even if this was an excellent or determined circulation with the aid of IBM.

IBM is making a bet the farm on pink Hat, and it more desirable no longer mess up

Who expects a $34 billion deal involving two commercial enterprise powerhouses to drop on a Sunday afternoon, but IBM and pink Hat stunned us the day before today after they pulled the set off on a historically significant deal.

IBM has been a poster infant for a corporation moving through a painful transformation. As field CEO (and IBM business partner) Aaron Levie put it on Twitter, every so often an organization has to make a bold stream to push that variety of initiative forward:

They trust they could take their complex mix of infrastructure/application/platform features and emerging applied sciences like synthetic intelligence, blockchain and analytics, and blend all of that with pink Hat’s profitable fusion of business open source equipment, cloud native, hybrid cloud and a eager realizing of the commercial enterprise.

As Jon Shieber cited the day past, it became a tacit acknowledgement that company was now not going to get the results it was hoping for with emerging technologies like Watson synthetic intelligence. It vital whatever that translated more at once into income.

crimson Hat can be that business sales engine. It already is an organization on a $3 billion salary run fee, and it has a purpose of hitting $5 billion. while that’s somewhat small potatoes for a corporation like IBM that generates $19 billion 1 / 4, it represents a crucial addition.

That’s because despite its iffy income studies over the last five years, Synergy analysis reported that IBM had 7 percent of the cloud infrastructure market in its most recent file, which it defines as Infrastructure as a provider, Platform as a service and hosted deepest cloud. it is the latter that IBM is certainly decent at.

The company has the items in region now and a good quantity of marketshare, however pink Hat gives it a a whole lot extra solid hybrid cloud story to inform. they can doubtlessly bridge that hosted inner most cloud business with their own public cloud (and most likely even those of their competitors) and use pink Hat as a cloud native and open source springboard, giving their income groups a superior story to tell.

IBM already has a lot of business credibility on its own, of path. It sells on right of lots of the identical open supply tools as red Hat, but it surely hasn’t been getting the sales and income momentum that purple Hat has loved. in case you combine the big IBM earnings engine and their capabilities business with that of pink Hat, you've got the knowledge to crank this into an important company.

photograph: Ron Mller

It’s value noting that the deal must pass shareholder muster and clear international regulatory hurdles before they could combine both groups. IBM has anticipated that it's going to take at least until the 2d half of subsequent yr to close this deal and it might take even longer.

IBM has to use that point accurately and well to be certain after they pull the trigger, these two companies mix as easily as feasible throughout technology and tradition. It’s in no way handy to make these mega deals work with so a lot money and force involved, but it surely is indispensable that massive Blue no longer screw this up. This could very well characterize its final premiere possibility to appropriate the ship as soon as and for all.

overlook Watson, the purple Hat acquisition may be the aspect that saves IBM

With its newest $34 billion acquisition of crimson Hat, IBM may have found anything greater basic than “Watson” to retailer its flagging business.

although the acquisition of crimson Hat  is by way of no skill a certain victory for the Armonk, N.Y.-based mostly computing company that has had extra downs than u.s.over the five years, it looks to be a higher wager for “massive Blue” than a man-made intelligence program that changed into all the time extra hype than reality.

certainly, commentators are already noting that this can be a case where IBM at last hangs up the Watson hat and returns to the business software and services enterprise that has always been its core competency (albeit one which has been weighted way more closely on consulting features — to the detriment of the enterprise’s business).

Watson, the company division focused on synthetic intelligence whose public claims had been all the time extra marketing than definitely market-driven, has no longer performed as well as IBM had hoped and investors were dropping their endurance.

Critics — together with analysts on the investment bank Jefferies (as early as three hundred and sixty five days ago) — were skeptical of Watson’s means to deliver IBM from its business woes.

As we wrote on the time:

Jefferies pulls from an audit of a partnership between IBM Watson and MD Anderson as a case study for IBM’s broader issues scaling Watson. MD Anderson cut its ties with IBM after wasting $60 million on a Watson project that became subsequently deemed, “now not competent for human investigational or medical use.”

The MD Anderson nightmare doesn’t stand on its own. I constantly hear from startup founders in the AI house that their own financial services and biotech valued clientele have had equivalent experiences working with IBM.

The narrative isn’t the made from any single malfunction, but somewhat the outcome of overhyped advertising, deficiencies in operating with deep researching and GPUs and intensive information preparation demands.

That’s not the simplest difficulty IBM has had with Watson’s healthcare results. past this 12 months, the on-line clinical journal Stat pronounced that Watson changed into giving clinicians options for cancer remedies that have been “hazardous and flawed” — in response to the training statistics it had bought from the business’s personal engineers and medical doctors at Sloan-Kettering who had been working with the know-how.

All of these woes have been reflected within the business’s latest income call the place it reported falling revenues essentially from the Cognitive solutions enterprise, which comprises Watson’s synthetic intelligence and supercomputing functions. though IBM chief financial officer pointed to “mid-to-excessive” single digit increase from Watson’s fitness business within the quarter, transaction processing application enterprise fell through 8% and the company’s suite of hosted software features is really an afterthought for enterprise gravitating to Microsoft, Alphabet, and Amazon for cloud features.

To make certain, Watson is only one of the segments that IBM had been hoping to faucet for its future boom; and while it changed into a big funding area for the company, the enterprise all the time had its eyes partly fastened on the cloud computing environment because it searched for areas of boom.

It’s this area of cloud computing where IBM hopes that pink Hat can aid it gain ground.

“The acquisition of red Hat is a video game-changer. It adjustments every thing concerning the cloud market,” spoke of Ginni Rometty, IBM Chairman, President and Chief govt Officer, in a statement saying the acquisition. “IBM will turn into the realm’s number-one hybrid cloud issuer, providing organizations the only open cloud solution in an effort to free up the full cost of the cloud for his or her businesses.”

The acquisition additionally puts an incredible quantity of advertising power behind pink Hat’s quite a few open source capabilities enterprise — giving all of those IBM venture managers and consultants new initiatives to pitch and perhaps juicing open source software adoption a little more aggressively within the enterprise.

As purple Hat chief government Jim Whitehurst told TheStreet in September, “The huge secular driver of Linux is that large facts workloads run on Linux. AI workloads run on Linux. DevOps and those platforms, just about solely Linux,” he talked about. “So tons of the internet new workloads which are being developed have an affinity for Linux.”

The biggest application acquisition ever: IBM to purchase purple Hat for $34B

At a value usually reserved for semiconductor corporations, telecoms, and pharmaceutical giants, IBM introduced these days it would pay a list $34 billion in cash and debt to purchase commercial enterprise open source issuer red Hat. Eclipsing Microsoft’s $26.2 billion acquisition of LinkedIn, here's the largest software acquisition in history. It’s now not the largest tech acquisition ever, although, as that title belongs to Dell’s $sixty seven billion buyout of records storage company EMC.

that you would be able to study what IBM is buying red Hat to develop into a hybrid cloud company in TechCrunch editor Ingrid Lunden’s deep dive right here:

So how does the IBM-crimson Hat deal (if it closes), stack up towards the different biggest acquisitions of all time?

The crimson Hat deal is proof that the scalability of software can massively focus wealth. not like industrial giants of ancient that break up their fortunes with the physical resource suppliers that supplied and allotted their oil, chemical, or packaged first rate empires, application requires basically no cloth can charge to create or distribute. The aggregation of cost to software giants and their leaders offers both a great incentive to build an international-altering business, however additionally a drastic shift of capital out of the hands of labor. while it’s satisfactory to rejoice pink Hat’s accomplishment, society have to inevitably grapple with the poverty and populism fueled by way of how software funnels funds to the few.

IBM to purchase purple Hat for $34B in money and debt, taking an even bigger jump into hybrid cloud

After rumors flew around this weekend, IBM nowadays tested that it would acquire open source, cloud utility company purple Hat for $one hundred ninety per share in cash, working out to a total price of $34 billion. IBM mentioned the deal has already been accepted through the boards of directors of each IBM and crimson Hat however continues to be field to pink Hat shareholder and regulatory approvals. If all goes as planned, the acquisition is anticipated to shut in the latter half of 2019.

The deal is all about IBM, which has lengthy persevered to rely on its legacy server company, taking a much bigger bet on the cloud, and very peculiarly cloud capabilities that mix on-premises and cloud-based architectures — something that the two companies have already been engaged on together seeing that may additionally of this year (which now might be checked out as a look at various power). crimson Hat should be a distinct unit within IBM’s Hybrid Cloud team — which is already a $19 billion company for IBM, the business pointed out — and it'll proceed to center of attention on open-source software. 

“The acquisition of purple Hat is a online game-changer. It changes every little thing in regards to the cloud market,” spoke of Ginni Rometty, IBM Chairman, President and Chief government Officer, in a statement. “IBM will turn into the world’s number-one hybrid cloud company, offering businesses the most effective open cloud answer for you to liberate the whole price of the cloud for his or her corporations.”

The mixed organizations could be in a position to present utility in features spanning Linux, containers, Kubernetes, multi-cloud administration, and cloud administration and automation, IBM stated. IBM additionally delivered that together the groups will continue to build partnerships with distinct cloud providers, together with AWS, Microsoft’s Azure, Google Cloud, Alibaba and others, alongside the IBM Cloud.

As Josh Constine notes here, it’s one of the largest-ever tech acquisitions, and arguably the biggest that's committed basically to software. (Dell obtained EMC for $67 billion, to decide on up application but also a substantial hardware and storage enterprise.)

whereas businesses like Amazon have gone all-in on cloud, in many cases, a lot of businesses are making the stream regularly — IBM cites stats that estimate that some 80 percent of business workloads “have yet to stream to the cloud, held again by the proprietary nature of nowadays’s cloud market.” buying purple Hat will assist IBM improved faucet into an opportunity to tackle that.

“Most organizations today are most effective 20 p.c alongside their cloud event, renting compute power to cut prices,” she persevered. “The next eighty percent is set unlocking true enterprise price and riding boom. here's the subsequent chapter of the cloud. It requires moving enterprise applications to hybrid cloud, extracting greater information and optimizing each a part of the company, from supply chains to sales.”

On right of that, it'll supply IBM a a lot superior footing in open supply software, the core of what red Hat builds and deploys today.

“Open supply is the default choice for contemporary IT options, and i’m totally pleased with the function purple Hat has played in making that a truth in the business,” spoke of Jim Whitehurst, President and CEO, red Hat, in an announcement. “joining forces with IBM will deliver us with a more desirable level of scale, resources and capabilities to accelerate the have an effect on of open supply as the groundwork for digital transformation and convey purple Hat to a fair wider audience –  all while protecting our exciting way of life and unwavering dedication to open source innovation.”

while IBM competes against the likes of Amazon, the organizations will see to stay partners with them with this acquisition. “IBM is dedicated to being an genuine multi-cloud issuer, and we can prioritize the use of crimson Hat technology throughout assorted clouds” observed Arvind Krishna, Senior vice chairman, IBM Hybrid Cloud, in a statement. “In doing so, IBM will aid open supply expertise wherever it runs, allowing it to scale vastly within business settings worldwide.”

IBM spoke of that pink Hat will add to its revenue increase, gross margin and free money circulation inside one year of closing.


IBM: cost trap Or Deep value purchase? | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

some of the largest mistakes a value investor can make is falling into a price entice. every so often the market sees whatever thing an investor doesn’t, and a inventory is low cost for a rationale. the use of discounted adjusted money stream analysis may also help buyers make a rational funding decision in line with a much better knowing of what form of earnings and margins the market is pricing into the inventory. This category of analysis, personally, is specially vital in a potential turnaround story like IBM. To be guaranteed we are becoming an excellent business at a good value, we deserve to examine the working company and credit score situations of the enterprise.

IBM’s existing inventory rate reflects expectations of at all times lowering margins whereas asset growth remains flat. while IBM has lately turned the vogue in their revenue increase from highly terrible to pretty flat, i would like to look a couple of greater quarters of that style persisting and margins expanding before I believe the resurgence story.

The latest State of IBM

lower back in its heyday, IBM became considered a pioneer in the technological revolution. extra currently, that has now not been the case. IBM has seen bad revenue growth every year for the reason that 2012, and its share rate declined well over -25% all over the equal time.

whereas effects have been under stellar, IBM’s working company appears a little bit good. The Piotroski F-ranking (5) and Altman Z-scores (three.sixty one) both appear safe. while the operating margins and debt metrics don't seem to be as good as they traditionally were, here is understandable given IBM is a mature business.

source: Gurufocus

furthermore, the company’s credit, after making the quintessential cash circulate adjustments to mentioned metrics, seems stable, and there may still be greater than adequate capital to pay maturing debts and the dividend, reduce the company’s leverage, and maintain reinvesting in the business.

supply: Valens-analysis

IBM’s newest Quarterly earnings name

On the latest quarterly revenue name, IBM’s senior vp and CFO Jim Kavanaugh talked about, “We proceed to see powerful customer demand in the rising, excessive-value segments of the IT industry. And our performance this quarter turned into driven by the choices in hybrid cloud, in protection, in digital, and in analytics and AI.”

IBM goes via a transformation from its typical hardware application enterprise to a cloud-primarily based provider business. afterward the name, Kavanaugh said, “We expected a headwind on product combine… And we’re greater than offsetting that with capabilities. We delivered our ideal 12 months-to-year margin performance in the third quarter, led with the aid of capabilities up a hundred and sixty groundwork points 12 months-over-yr. The complicated work we’ve done round shifting to better cost, we’re starting to see the consciousness in our margin on that. The momentum that we’ve received on our hybrid cloud value proposition, we’re beginning to see the dimensions efficiencies. And the productivity benefits are playing out as we move ahead.” On correct of the a hundred and sixty-bps margin enlargement, cloud salary grew by 20% during the last twelve months and now represents 24% of IBM’s salary.

while general revenue boom for the latest quarter became flat, and has been negative given that 2012, the fee at which income were declining has more desirable. Jeff Saut of Raymond James commonly notes that the inventory market isn’t about whether issues are decent or unhealthy, but whether or not they are getting more suitable or worse. in the case of IBM’s profits boom, while it isn't superb, it has been getting “much less worse” on account that the lows of 2015.

source: Valens-research

management has made it very clear that it has been, and plans to continue, investing heavily into its excessive price areas, as described above, and is infusing greater AI into its normal company. Most lately, IBM elevated its capital expenses by using 21%, with the majority of it going into its high-margin hybrid cloud technologies. while this has been a favorable signal, it is largely offset by using the declines in the usual product mix. earnings margins, on an adjusted cash stream groundwork, continue to be in a mild downtrend and below the as-mentioned EBITDA margins.

source: Valens-research

IBM’s 5 company Segments

five distinctive segments comprise IBM’s company: Cognitive options, technology features and Cloud platforms, world enterprise features, programs, and international Financing.

Revenues in the Cognitive solutions section declined by -5% for the quarter. This segment represents roughly 22% of IBM’s complete quarterly income and is damaged up into strategic vertices, horizontal domains, and transaction procession utility.

Strategic verticals encompass the health, analytics, safety, AI and block-chain groups. administration refers to this area of the enterprise as a “high-value segment.” it's the one by which I see essentially the most increase skills. The protection application element can be important as greater corporations transition into IBM’s cloud company, and it would be a value driver for the enterprise going ahead. IBM is also investing in block-chain. It presently has over 75 energetic networks to tackle inefficiencies within the global give chain, with extra within the pipeline. The work it is doing with businesses like Medtronic within the healthcare space to reduce the charge and enhance the efficiency of healthcare suggests promise as well.

The 2d area, horizontal domains, has mostly been a drag on the cognitive solutions segment as a whole. This enviornment comprises what Kavanaugh calls collaboration, commerce, and ability. IBM is working their Watson (NYSE:AI) expertise into these add-ons as, in response to administration, a longer-term funding. administration expects to see nice returns on its funding beginning in 2019.

The third component of this segment is transaction procession software. On the newest quarterly call, management indicated that a very good pipeline of new enterprise is in area going into the fourth quarter and the enterprise expects growth, although it turned into now not viewed in the past quarter.

universal, the strategic verticals area of this company phase suggests promising increase, even though it become bad in the latest quarter and incorporates the high-margin business. The transaction procession application looks to show the least promise relocating forward as it leverages the hardware enterprise from which administration appears to be withdrawing. I consider traders need to see increase within the strategic verticals enterprise to force IBM’s income growth and margin enlargement going ahead.

The expertise services and Cloud platforms section is the 2nd-greatest aspect, individually, for IBM’s growth going forward. This section already makes up the largest portion of IBM’s most fresh quarterly profits at $8.3 billion, or 44% of total revenue.

The hybrid cloud implementation enviornment of this section has grown over 20% year over year, and administration believes this trend can persist. It estimates that organizations are only 10-20% into the transition to the cloud and consider it may also be a large cost driver for the top and bottom strains.

The weakness in technical guide capabilities, although, has offset optimism for IBM’s growth and skills boom. This has suppressed the phase’s average performance, as revenues are down -3% for the quarter. This trend will probably persist, when you consider that it is leveraged off the out-of-date normal enterprise company. generally, the hybrid cloud implementations business has potential to proceed on its high-growth trajectory and greater than offset the declines within the greater-antiquated traditional commercial enterprise company. If management is relevant with its evaluation of the cloud transition being in its baby ranges, this may be a value driver for the company. it is already a huge element of IBM’s average profits.

Piggybacking on the outdated two company categories, the international business services phase has proven some increase. It represents one other 22% of IBM’s most recent quarterly revenue and grew at a +three% price. through the use of internal options, IBM helps organizations convert from usual business programs to cloud computing. Consulting businesses transitioning to the functions that make up Cognitive solutions/Strategic Vertices and Cloud structures generally generate the revenues for this section. The business has shown endured power during this observe, which has resulted in universal margins expanding by means of 270bps year over 12 months.

The fourth company section is programs, which represents $1.7 billion of quarterly profits, or roughly 9%. programs focuses largely on mainframe computers and government contracts. There is a few challenge about the income pipeline, but because of the quite low impact on revenue, I don’t locate it to be very material.

The fifth segment, which isn’t mentioned a great deal in the revenue call, is the world Financing section, which handiest represents 2% of quarterly revenue.

however these within IBM’s ranks categorical extreme optimism across the cloud business, declines within the usual hardware enterprise have offset this growth, causing earnings and margins to continue to be flat in the newest quarter. there's promise within the new cloud and strategic imperatives investments made, and that trend should persist. IBM has shown moderate margin expansion and has perceived to stabilize its income trajectory within the close term.

source: IBM income name Slides

what is the Market Pricing in?

at the moment, the ahead P/E is at 9.44, price to free cash is 10.05, and value to operating money is 7.49—all of which might be at historic lows. in addition to these relative valuation metrics, the dividend yield sits at a 10-yr excessive of four.72% (the inventory is cheap in keeping with cash returned to shareholders). consequently, IBM looks within your budget by using most standard relative valuation metrics.

supply: Gurufocus

The regular analyst goal expense for IBM, in accordance with the opinions of fifteen Wall road analysts, is at the moment at $163.77, which gives the stock +25% skills upside. There are 5 buys, eight holds, and two sells.

based on my discounted adjusted cash circulation model, the latest market cost displays expectations of assets last flat and adjusted margins declining to 19.2% over the subsequent five years. to put that into context, analysts are at the moment projecting adjusted margins to be around 26% via 2019.

source: Valens-research

trap or buy?

ordinary, IBM looks to be in respectable economic form. Their Piotroski and Altman rankings do not raise any purple flags and there doesn't appear to be any liquidity difficulty around paying their debt obligations and holding their dividend. additionally, even with their troubles over the closing few years, IBM is still incomes a positive return above their cost of capital (ROIC and adjusted ROA' continue to be more desirable than WACC).

while administration sounds optimistic concerning the future (they at all times do), we have not viewed the transition to larger margin company translate to overall EBITDA, or adjusted money move, margin enlargement. while IBM looks most economical by most typical relative valuation metrics, i want to see a number of greater a hit quarters of IBM’s transition, and average EBITDA margins stabilize, before I’m purchasing the turnaround story.

Disclosure: I/we have no positions in any shares outlined, and no plans to provoke any positions in the subsequent 72 hours.

I wrote this text myself, and it expresses my own opinions. i am not receiving compensation for it (aside from from seeking Alpha). I have no enterprise relationship with any company whose inventory is outlined listed here.


IBM Named a frontrunner in latest IDC worldwide MarketScape | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM Named a leader in newest IDC worldwide MarketScape September 20, 2017  |  by John Wheeler A person holding a small globe.

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Share IBM Named a leader in latest IDC worldwide MarketScape on Twitter Share IBM Named a pacesetter in latest IDC worldwide MarketScape on facebook Share IBM Named a leader in latest IDC worldwide MarketScape on LinkedIn

Many CISOs inform us considered one of their most complicated challenges is settling on, hiring and conserving true protection skill with the advantage, event and fervour to protect their businesses’ positive brand against the dynamic cyberthreat panorama. It’s due to this CISOs regularly turn to managed protection services suppliers as a methodology to accomplice and complement knowledge, which builds a stronger safety program able to working 24/7/365 with high resilience.

At IBM safety, our global Managed protection functions has been partnering with purchasers for more than two decades to bring world-type protection insurance plan in over 133 countries around the world. And, our newest achievement is one we are proud and delighted to share, being that we were identified as a pacesetter within the “IDC MarketScape: worldwide Managed protection features 2017 vendor evaluation” (doc # US41320917, August 2017). The report notes that IBM is considered one of just a few study individuals whose MSS beginning will also be considered truly world, partially as a result of its skill to integrate MSS and security services international.

read the IDC MarketScape: global Managed security functions 2017 supplier assessment

starting to be global Threats Demand Managed security services Transformation

With the evolution of the MSS market and advanced security capabilities required to support client corporations take care of shift and the frequency of cyberthreats, no single approach or service will suffice. although IBM has been delivering managed protection functions for greater than twenty years, we have invariably transformed to serve our shoppers’ needs, enhance our safety intelligence and innovation, and create an ecosystem geared toward collaborating and sharing with other protection intelligence corporations and purchasers world wide.

fresh months have proven agencies need vigilant, round-the-clock managed safety, sophisticated intelligence operations and international response teams ready to deal with cyberthreats. each the WannaCry and Petya/NotPetya attacks have been peculiarly difficult for many companies everywhere.

As noted within the record, IBM has committed to the advancement of our managed security services offerings with improved investments in people, who're supported with the aid of cognitive improvements such as Watson for Cyber safety, and a global network of security operations facilities (SOCs). This, along side our X-force Incident Response and Intelligence features (IRIS) group, can provide faster, greater concise information to shoppers to make decisions and take evasive action when indispensable.

MSS Helps address altering Jurisdictional necessities

With a lot of statistics coverage rules and subsequent customer wants, a different key skills that our global community of X-drive Command facilities offers is the localization and management of facts inside a selected jurisdiction, however retaining the fluidity of seeing and responding to world safety hobbies as they ensue.

We lately unveiled our European X-force Command middle in Wroclaw, Poland, which is designed to support our clients whose corporations fall inside numerous jurisdictional obligations, however nonetheless require the oversight and intelligence of a full international community monitoring cyber incidents and hobbies.

We’re All in this together: world Threats Require a world Response

earning correct spot in an business analyst report is not any small accomplishment, and here is testomony to our complicated work and the awareness of the IBM imaginative and prescient over a few years. international managed security services, along with innovation and subsequent incident and intelligence functions, has turn into a critical necessity for a couple of industries that wouldn't have the time, the expertise or the people to manipulate the deluge of threats and attacks.

At IBM security, we are lucky to have teams of like-minded americans everywhere who awaken daily ready to collaborate with their colleagues in far off areas to assist serve our consumers. however more importantly, we are grateful to our many shoppers everywhere, and thru their loyalty and perception in IBM protection, this fantastic accolade was made viable.

For more counsel, read the complete IDC evaluation.

examine the IDC MarketScape: global Managed safety features 2017 supplier evaluation

Tags: IBM Managed security services (MSS) | IDC | Managed security capabilities (MSS) | Managed security features provider (MSSP) | security solutions John Wheeler

vice chairman, features approach, offerings, Engineering and company Operations, IBM safety

John Wheeler has greater than 20 years in the IT application and services industry and 17 years of specialization in... 9 Posts observe on What’s new
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    Assessment - IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition Application Development

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    IBM Drops Lotus Brand, Takes Notes and Domino Forward | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    KMWorld Trend-Setting Products of 2012 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Sep 1, 2012

    Hugh McKellar

    This marks the tenth anniversary of our Trend-Setting Products list, and as in years past, it has been assembled through consultation and collaboration with editorial colleagues, analysts, system integrators and a select group of users. We conscientiously compile the list to serve KMWorld's core constituency, our readers, and focus completely on elegant, workable, sustainable business value. We disregard the gimmicky software that might feature a clever idea but has only ephemeral importance. And although a number of the products listed here are especially well-suited, if not specifically designed, for particular vertical markets, we selected those whose benefits can be realized in our readers' widely diverse environments.

    The judging process is a collaborative effort that takes many months. This year more than 700 products/product families were whittled down to the 89 listed in these pages. Each company whose products are listed below helped to define and enhance a market critically important to our readership by listening to and working with customers. They all represent a commitment to innovation and their customers.

    We encourage readers to send your thoughts and suggestions to the judging panel at judging@kmworld.com.

    5280 Solutions: Dynamic Payables—Web-based invoice automation solution for SharePoint.

    A9, an Amazon company: Amazon CloudSearch—cloud service allowing customers to integrate scalable search into applications.

    Abbyy USA: FlexiCapture 10—data capture and document processing software for turning hard-copy forms and documents into business-ready data.

    Accellion, Inc.: Accellion Mobile Apps-secure, enterprise—class mobile file sharing solutions. Click here for more product details.

    Access Innovations: Data Harmony 3.8—software tools for metadata management, including automatic indexing and taxonomies. Click here for more product details.

    Accusoft: Prizm Content Connect—customizable, scalable content viewer. Click here for more product details.

    Acquia: Dev Desktop—package that installs Acquia Drupal on Windows and Mac OS X.

    Acrolinx: Acrolinx IQ—natural language processing engine enabling creation of search-ready content.

    Alfresco: Alfresco in the Cloud—allows users to collaborate and share files both inside and outside the organization securely on any device.

    Altep: Inspicio—legal electronic document review platform with integrated concept searching, clustering and categorization. Click here for more product details.

    AnyDoc Software: CAPTUREit—standalone document capture application and part of either end-to-end OCR or AnyDoc automated document and data capture. Click here for more product details.

    Appian: Appian BPM Suite—mobile, cloud and social process improvement.

    ASG Software Solutions: ASG CloudFactory—comprehensive cloud management. Click here for more product details.

    Attensity: Attensity Pipeline—real-time, semantically annotated social media data stream for large organizations.

    Attivio: Active Intelligence Engine 3.0—accessible, standards-based unified information access platform.

    Autonomy: IDOL 10—a single processing layer for audio, video, social media, e-mail, Web content and structured data.

    AvePoint: DocAve Content Shield for SharePoint—automating enforcement of information governance policies for tagging and classifying content. Click here for more product details.

    BA Insight: Longitude Enterprise Search for SharePoint and FAST—integrated SharePoint solution that provides full previews of search result content regardless of type or location.

    Bamboo Solutions: Web Parts and Tools—portfolio to accelerate portal deployment and facilitate adoption and continued usage. Click here for more product details.

    Birst: Birst Enterprise Edition—self-service business intelligence.

    BP Logix: Process Director Cloud Edition—business intelligence to help users anticipate and predict potential problems in business processes.

    Bridgeline Digital: iAPPS Content Manager V. 4.7—Web experience management with internationalization capabilities for e-commerce. Click here for more product details.

    Citrix: XenDesktop—desktop virtualization for on-demand service on any device.

    Clarabridge: Clarabridge Enterprise—voice of the customer platform for data acquisition with linguistic processing and enterprise reporting.

    Colligo Networks: Colligo Desktop for SharePoint—document, e-mail and records management solution.

    Comperio Search: Comperio Front—business logic software for search solutions. Click here for more product details.

    Concept Searching: Smart Content Framework—software to identify and tag content with semantic metadata and then classify it to organizational taxonomies.

    Connotate: Agent Community—software and services provide an interface for highly accurate data collection.

    Consona, which recently merged with CDC Software to form Aptean: CRM Suite—knowledge management, enterprise customer relationship management, e-service and network management software.

    Content Analyst: Content Analyst Analytical Technology (CAAT) V. 3.11—deep analytics for unstructured data applications, including legal document review.

    Coveo: Insight Solutions—combining enterprise search and knowledge management with extensive industry expertise and best practices.

    Digital Reef: Digital Reef eDiscovery—enterprise-scale e-discovery platform for managing legal matters, regulatory inquiries and corporate investigations.

    Discover Technologies: DiscoverPoint—automated expertise location for enterprises with large workforces.

    eGain: eGain 10—complete suite of customer service and contact center software to help organizations transform their traditional call centers into multichannel customer interaction hubs. Click here for more product details.

    Ektron: Ektron 8.5—.NET Web content management, marketing optimization, social community and e-commerce platform.

    EMC: Atmos Cloud Delivery Platform—software used to deliver and manage storage-as-a-service to an Atmos storage cloud.

    EntropySoft: Content Hub Platform—content connectors providing a central point of access to all company documents, both on-premise or in the cloud. Click here for more product details.

    EXSYS: Corvid—development software allowing non-programmers to easily build interactive Web applications.

    Exterro: Fusion Platform—workflow-driven suite including identification, legal hold and early case assessment, collection, processing, analysis, review and production.

    Findwise: Hydra—open source content processing framework for search-based applications.

    FTI Technology: Ringtail 8.2—a complete e-discovery platform with integrated visual analytics and redesigned interface. Click here for more product details.

    HiSoftware: Compliance Sheriff—enterprise compliance automation enabling repeatable and enforceable processes for all types of content governance.

    IBM: Content Navigator—allows users to access, manage, work and collaborate with enterprise content directly from mobile devices and tablets.

    IGLOO Software: Igloo Platform—integrated suite of content management, collaboration and enterprise social networking tools.

    Infotrieve: Mobile Library—fully secure, cloud-based access to enterprise content.

    Integrify: Integrify 5.5—robust, lean business process management solution available as both an on-premise solution or hosted service.

    IntelliResponse: IntelliResponse Answer Suite—customer experience across a variety of interaction channels, including corporate websites, agent desktops, social media platforms and mobile devices.

    IntraFind: iFinder—solutions and consultancy services for enterprise search, information access and text mining.

    IntraLinks: IntraLinks Connect—out-of-the-box solutions to share content across the enterprise while maintaining  security, control and transparency. Click here for more product details.

    Jive Software: Social Business Platform—comprehensive, enterprise-class tools for communication, collaboration, content creation and sharing.

    K2: K2 blackpearl—BPM software for automating enterprise business processes and building SharePoint applications and integrating Microsoft solutions into SAP.

    KANA: KANA Enterprise Agent Desktop—allows contact center agents to access the information and functionalities required to see customer information in a single, unified desktop.

    Kapow Software: Katalyst 9.0—enables integration of applications and/or data sources without coding or APIs.

    kCura: Relativity 7—Web-based platform providing analysis, review and production stages of the electronic discovery reference model (EDRM). Click here for more product details.

    KnowledgeLake: Unify for SharePoint—permits users to stay within native applications while interacting with SharePoint. Click here for more product details.

    Kofax: Kofax Web Capture—toolkit for creating Web-based applications with image viewing/scanning capabilities.

    M-Files: M-Files ECM—document management integrated with Windows applications.

    MarkLogic: MarkLogic 5—database for building and deploying big data applications with structured, semi-structured and unstructured information.

    Metalogix: Replicator for SharePoint 5.0—enables multiserver SharePoint content synchronization. Click here for more product details.

    Mindbreeze: InSite—secure, semantic software for Web search. Click here for more product details.

    Moxie Software: Spaces Platform—communication and collaboration designed to connect customers and employees.

    NewsGator: Social Sites for SharePoint 2010—social networking for SharePoint integration.

    Noetix: NoetixViews Workbench—automates the creation and management of customizations to Noetix views through an intuitive user interface. Click here for more product details.

    OpenText: Exceed onDemand for iPad—managed application access solution designed for enterprises.

    Oracle: Oracle RightNow CX Cloud Service—combines Web, social and contact center experiences for unified, cross-channel service.

    Pegasystems: Unified Marketing Solution—inbound offer management and outbound marketing combining predictive and adaptive analytics with business process management.

    Percussion Software: CM1 Version 2—pure WCM software that provides users with full functionality delivered as an easily upgradeable product.

    Proofpoint: Enterprise Governance—tracks, classifies, monitors and applies policy to unstructured information across the enterprise where stored.

    Q-Sensei: Q-Sensei Enterprise—multidimensional search and indexing designed to develop and deploy search-based applications. Click here for more product details.

    Quest Software: Spotlight on SQL Server Enterprise—in-depth physical, cloud and virtual SQL diagnostics.

    Raytion: Enterprise Search Connectors for FAST Search Server 2010 for SharePoint—native integration with SharePoint's security trimming.

    Recommind: Decisiv Search—crawls and indexes information from any source, including document management systems, intranets, e-mail archives, contact management databases and websites.

    Reprints Desk: Article Galaxy—journal article platform for evidence-based promotions, medical information responses, as well as scientific, technical and medical research.

    RightAnswers: Unified Knowledge Platform—knowledge management automation and service.

    Rivet Logic: Crafter Rivet Version 2.0—an end-to-end Web content and experience management and delivery platform. Click here for more product details.

    RSD: RSD GLASS—platform for managing global corporate information governance programs for electronic and physical records.

    SAP: StreamWork—social software enabling information analysis to drive action through collaboration with people, data and structured business tools.

    SAS Text Analytics: Predictive Analytics and Data Mining—suite of integrated predictive modeling processes.

    SDL: SDL Tridion—complete, global Web content management solutions. Click here for more product details.

    Search Technologies: Aspire—content processing system designed for search environments enabling content to be acquired, cleaned, restructured, enriched and normalized. Click here for more product details.

    Sherpa Software: Discovery Attender for Notes—federated search functionality across all Domino databases.

    Smartlogic: Semaphore—combines ontology management, classification, text mining and semantic analysis in a search application framework.

    SpringCM: Mobile apps for iPad, iPhone and Android—cloud-based content and document management solutions.

    StoredIQ: Active Information Management Platform—open platform for in-place dynamic indexing and analysis of data.

    Symantec: Endpoint Protection—antivirus software virtual and physical systems that integrate into other virus protection tools with a single console.

    Synaptica: Synaptica Enterprise—taxonomy and metadata management software.

    Traction Software: TeamPage—action tracking, Twitter-style status, threaded discussion, collaboration, social networking and deep search.

    Vivisimo, an IBM company: CXO—customer experience optimization connecting customer-facing agents with information required for sales/support.

    Wall Street Network: WSN Insight—knowledge management for SharePoint.


    Skeletal pathology and variable anatomy in elephant feet assessed using computed tomography | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Introduction

    Elephants not only provide education and entertainment as zoological attractions, but also have ecological significance as umbrella (or keystone) species, whose conservation indirectly protects others (Choudhury et al., 2008). They also have economic importance as tourist attractions and working animals. Welfare of elephants is an active area of discussion, both in professional fields and in general society. Although the welfare of captive elephants has been improving through husbandry initiatives and advances in knowledge of veterinary care for these species, there remain several areas that continue to be obstacles to optimum welfare.

    Pathological foot conditions are one such problem area, thought to constitute the single most important health problem of captive elephants, with up to 50% of elephants in captivity suffering from foot problems, although the actual prevalence of carious conditions remains unknown (Fowler, 2006). Accurate diagnosis is challenging, treatment is expensive and time-consuming (Lewis et al., 2010) and chronic unresponsive conditions of the feet are a major reason for euthanasia in captivity (Csuti, Sargent & Bechert, 2008).

    Some foot problems are visible externally (e.g., solar pad or cuticle lesions), do not require diagnostic imaging, and seem to be improving with the near-universal adoption of daily examination and foot care routines in elephants (Lewis et al., 2010). However, other pathological lesions—particularly those affecting the osseous structures—are challenging to identify and monitor. Originally superficial lesions may lead to further problems through ascending infection, resulting in osteomyelitis and/or infectious arthritis. Osteoarthritis (OA, also called degenerative joint disease/DJD) is commonly encountered and other problems are described.

    Management conditions are thought to be the one of the most important factors in the development of distal limb osseous pathologies (Fowler, 2006; Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016). Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis are generally an extension of a soft tissue infection or penetrating solar trauma. Hard floors, lack of exercise, and repeated concussive forces (potentially including stereotypic behaviour; Haspeslagh et al., 2013) have all been proposed to contribute to the development of OA (Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000) or general musculoskeletal foot health (Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016) . Additionally, the conformation of the large and relatively straight limbs of elephants may predispose them to pathology (Fowler, 2006), as might the inherent biomechanics of the feet. Pathological changes have been speculated to occur more frequently in regions that normally experience high pressures (i.e., mechanical stresses) during walking; namely the distal structures of the lateral digits (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012).

    Lameness is not always an obvious feature in elephants with foot problems (Lewis et al., 2010), and radiography of the distal limb has been described to diagnose and monitor foot problems (e.g., Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000; Siegal-Willott et al., 2008; Kaulfers et al., 2010; Mumby et al., 2013). Over the recent years advanced imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been more commonly used in veterinary practice for musculoskeletal and other problems, but their use for elephants is precluded by body size and transport issues. As a result of the limited availability of imaging, the frequencies of these bony conditions in captive elephants are unknown and they are almost certainly under-reported based on what we know in other large animals such as cows (Nigam & Singh, 1980; Kofler, Geissbühler & Steiner, 2014) or rhinoceroses (Regnault et al., 2013; Galateanu et al., 2013).

    The aims of this study were to identify pathological bone lesions in the feet of captive African (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach 1797) and Asian (Elephas maximus Linnaeus 1758) elephants using post-mortem CT. We hypothesise that when there is pathological change, it will be present in multiple feet of the same individual and also that there will be multiple kinds of pathological change, which may be due to shared predisposing factors (e.g., management conditions, as above) and/or altered use. By exploring the locations of pathological changes, we further hypothesise that foot regions typically exposed to high pressures (i.e., lateral digits) are predisposed to developing lesions. When assessing any structures for pathology it is essential that the clinician is aware of normal anatomical variation, therefore, we also describe other osseous features that likely represent non-pathological, variable distal limb anatomy.

    Materials and Methods

    CT scans of 52 cadaver feet (16 right fore, 12 left fore, 14 right hind, 10 left hind) from 21 captive elephants (seven African Loxodonta africana, and 14 Asian Elephas maximus) were evaluated for evidence of pathology. All elephants were adult or near-adult: ranging from 17 to 61 years old. Feet or CT scans were donated to the Royal Veterinary College from various sources (zoos and safari parks) in the European Union. Data on morbidity and mortality was later compiled from an online database (http://www.elephant.se/) as well as from donating institutions, and details on the individual elephants are summarised in Table 1.

    Table 1:

    Details of seven African (Loxodontaafricana) and 14 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in this study.

    Asterisks indicate elephants known to have foot or locomotor problems. ‘Feet scanned’ indicates how many feet had available CT scan data, ‘Reason for death/euthanasia’ details the cause of death (from donating institutions or the online database http://www.elephant.se/). Elephant Feet scanned Reason for death/euthanasia Sex Age (years) African1 4 ? M 19 African2 4 Euthanasia (vaginal/urogenital tract disease) F 24 African3 1 ? M 27 African4 1 Disease (infection, gastrointestinal, unspecified mechanical abnormality) M 28 African5 1 ? F 30 African6 4 Disease (suspected cardiac disease) F 32 African7 2 Disease (unspecified) M 32 Asian1 2 ? M 17 Asian2* 1 Euthanasia (forelimb lameness) M 17 Asian3* 4 Euthanasia (arthritis and aggression) F 26 Asian4 3 ? F 40 Asian5* 4 Euthanasia (foot abscess) F 35 Asian6 2 ? M 40 Asian7* 1 Euthanasia (chronic arthritis) F 40 Asian8 3 ? F 42 Asian9* 2 Disease (osteomyelitis and foot disease) F 52 Asian10 2 Euthanasia (unspecified illness) M 50 Asian11 1 Euthanasia (unspecified) F 50 Asian12 4 Euthanasia (unspecified) F 55 Asian13 2 Sudden collapse F 61 Asian 14 4 ? ? ?

    The following distal limb structures were assessed on the CT scans for all five digits (denoted DI to DV by convention); the carpometacarpal (CMC) or tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints, metapodial (metacarpal/metatarsal) bones, paired proximal sesamoids, metacarpophalangeal (MCP) or metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints, proximal and distal interphalangeal (PIP and DIP) joints, phalangeal bones, and surrounding soft tissues. Lesions were identified and interpreted by a large animal veterinary radiologist and resident (J.D. and R.W.), and categorised in consensus using an established scheme previously used for elephants and rhinoceroses (Regnault et al., 2013). This grading scheme is provided in Table 2. Severity of each lesion was graded as slight, moderate, or severe (grades 1, 2 or 3 respectively; see Table 2 for grading criteria).

    Table 2:

    Grading scheme used for categorising pathological changes in this study.

    Lesion type Changes observed Severity Mineralisation Mineral opacity within soft tissues at a site distant to other osseous structures Slight = solitary short linear foci, occasionally coalescing Moderate = multiple linear or irregularly shaped mineral attenuating areas Severe = extensive mineralisation, frequently linear coalescing mineral structures, elongated Osteitis Disruption of normal trabecular bone pattern, mottled appearance, multiple hypoattenuating foci, loss of parts of bone, destruction of normal bone outline, periosteal new bone formation Slight/Moderate/Severe based on extent of changes Enthesopathy Discrete new bone formation at attachment sites of tendons and ligaments Slight/Moderate/Severe: based on size and extent of the mineral attenuation at the site of the soft tissue structures insertion onto the bone, if multiple sites affected in the same bone then interpretation based on all affected sites for overall grade. Cyst-like lesions Well-defined radiolucencies (with hyperattenuating rim) Grade based on size (not measured), small/medium/large (observer experience-based only) Fractures Sclerotic linear areas, may be with new bone formation at bone surface (old), linear hypoattenuation (acute) Not graded (just present/absent) Osteoarthritis Discrete new bone at periarticular surface, subchondral bone sclerosis, narrowing or obliteration of joint space, subchondral lysis, widening of joint space Mild: small pointed periarticular osteophytes, mild increased bone attenuation or thickening of the subchondral bone plate Moderate: Multiple medium sized periarticular osteophytes, evidence of widening or narrowing of the joint space not considered to be related to limb position only, thickening of the subchondral bone and adjacent increased mineral attenuation. Severe: Numerous and extensive periarticular osteophytes, marked narrowing of the articular space, marked subchondral bone thickening/hyperattenuation. Infectious arthritis Florid new bone formation at periarticular surface, subchondral bone lysis, widening of joint space, subchondral bone sclerosis, narrowing or obliteration of joint space Slight/Moderate/Severe based on extent of changes Remodelling Enlargement of vascular channels and synovial fossae, irregular contour to the osseous structures away from the joint surfaces and not considered entheseophyte formation, sometimes deep excavations in the bone, alterations in shape of a bone. Subjective scale of the overall shape of the bone, degree of periosteal change identified, alterations in the cortices. No fixed categorical variables. Subluxation Loss of articular surface contact between the bones forming a joint Not graded (just present/absent)

    The degree of ossification of “predigits” (prepollex/prehallux, or radial/tibial sesamoids; e.g., Hutchinson et al., 2008; Hutchinson et al., 2011) was also noted, and categorised as: non-ossified (code 0), minimally ossified (code 1), moderate ossification embedded in (presumably) cartilaginous soft tissue (code 2), or extensively ossified single structure (code 3). Anatomical variability in the proximal sesamoid bones was described.

    For analysis, each pathology category was expressed as the number of affected structures per foot e.g., if osseous cyst-like lesions were observed only in metacarpals III and IV, the foot would have two affected structures. For the more frequently observed pathological categories (remodelling, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions and osteoarthritis), a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was used to test age, sex, foot type (fore or hind), and species (Asian or African) as predictors on the amount of observed pathology (modelled as count data with a negative binomial distribution). The models ran as multi-variable negative binomial regressions with backwards selection. For statistical assessment, significance was set at p = 0.05. Multiple feet from the same elephant were treated as repeated measures. Similar GEE models were run for sesamoid fusion, and atypically-shaped and multipartite phalanges (though only with Asian elephants for the latter, as no African elephants had multipartite phalanges). A GEE (ordinal logistic) model was also used to test whether species was a significant predictor of degree of predigit ossification (modelled as categorical data), and then separately within each species as bi-variable models to test if age and foot type were significant predictors. Statistical analyses were performed in IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 24.0).

    To examine whether elephants with pathological lesions in one foot were more likely to have lesions in other feet, we compared the proportion of elephants with one vs. two or more feet diagnosed with pathology (only for the 15 elephants with scans of multiple feet, and pathology in at least one foot) for all categories.

    Results Pathological changes

    All of the elephant feet in this study (i.e., all adults and near-adults) were observed to have pathology of some type under our grading scheme. However, the majority of these lesions (63%) were grade 1, thus considered to be clinically insignificant or anatomical variants. We considered lesions of grade 2 or 3 (moderate and marked/severe) likely to represent clinically significant pathology. Based on this assessment, only grade 2 and 3 lesions were analysed further below. Forty seven of 52 feet (21/21 elephants) were found to contain pathological changes graded moderate (2) or greater. Percentages are reported for descriptive purposes.

    The most frequent change observed was remodelling, especially observed as bone surface irregularities (Figs. 1A and 1D), representing 31% of all pathologies observed (see Table 3 for breakdown). Remodelling was present in 18 out of 21 elephants (39/52 feet). Commonly remodelled bones were the metapodials (with 31% of all remodelling observed here), proximal phalanges (30%), sesamoid bones (16%) and middle phalanges (8%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (27% of remodelling), DIV (25%), DV (21%) and DII (17%), whilst DI appeared least affected (10%). A GEE (negative binomial model) found that observed remodelling increased with age (p = 0.01 in the final univariate model); age remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for species (p = 0.2), sex (p = 0.8), and foot type (fore vs. hind; p = 0.7) in the multivariable modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, remodelling was commonly observed in multiple feet (10/13 elephants with two or more affected feet, with only three elephants having a single foot affected).

    Figure 1: Sagittal CT slices of digits in elephant feet, exhibiting pathological changes. (A) Remodelling of the metacarpal (arrow) and fracture of the middle phalanx (filled arrowhead) in DIV of the right hind foot of ‘Asian8’. (B) Enthesopathy of the proximal sesamoid (filled arrowhead) and evidence of DJD (osteophytes, altered joint spacing) at the proximal and middle interphalangeal joints (arrows) in DIV of the right forefoot of ‘Asian10’. (C) Focal hyperattenuating region (arrow) and misshapen, scalloped proximal phalanx (filled arrowhead) in DII of the right forefoot of ‘Asian13’. (D) Remodelling of the bones (arrow), subluxation of the proximal interphalangeal joint (unfilled arrowhead) and soft tissue mineralisation (filled arrowheads) in DIII of the right hind foot of ‘Asian4’. Table 3:

    Summary of Grade 2 + pathological lesions detected in this study.

    In the first column, “Af” and “As” with numbers correspond to our elephant subjects from Table 1; also “Path,” number of unique pathology categories observed per individual elephant, and asterisks indicate elephants known to have foot or locomotor problems. Second column: “Foot”: LH, left hind; LF, left fore; RH, right hind; RF, right fore. Elephant Foot Calcification Osteitis Enthesophyte Cyst Fracture OA Infectious OA Remodelling Subluxation Misc. Af1 Path: 2 LF 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 LH 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Af2 Path: 2 RH 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LF 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 LH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Af3 Path: 7 RH 6 3 7 3 0 6 2 8 0 0 Af4 Path: 1 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Af5 Path: 5 LF 4 0 6 6 0 7 0 9 0 0 Af6 Path: 5 LF 0 0 1 3 0 2 0 3 0 0 LH 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 RF 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 RH 0 1 2 6 0 1 0 3 0 0 Af7 Path: 3 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LF 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 As1 Path:3 RF 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 LF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 As2* Path: 6 RH 2 0 8 1 1 1 0 8 0 0 As3* Path: 4 LF 0 0 8 2 0 0 0 9 0 0 LH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 RF 0 0 8 1 0 1 0 4 0 0 RH 0 0 3 3 0 4 0 2 0 0 As4 Path: 8 LF 0 1 4 3 0 3 0 4 0 0 RF 9 0 7 3 0 4 0 4 0 0 RH 6 5 10 11 0 9 2 12 1 0 As5* Path: 4 LF 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 LH 0 0 9 1 0 2 0 6 0 0 RF 0 0 9 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 RH 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 As6 Path: 3 LF 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 As7* Path: 6 RF 0 2 4 1 0 1 1 5 0 0 As8 Path: 7 LH 0 0 12 6 0 7 0 12 0 0 RF 3 2 7 2 0 3 1 5 0 0 RH 0 0 4 4 0 3 0 7 0 0 As9* Path: 8 LH 6 1 3 2 0 2 1 6 1 0 RH 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 4 1 0 As10 Path: 4 RF 0 0 12 3 0 10 0 20 0 0 RH 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 As11 Path: 2 RH 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 As12 Path: 6 LF 1 0 6 0 0 3 0 9 2 0 LH 4 0 5 0 0 1 0 8 1 0 RF 2 0 13 2 0 3 0 13 0 0 RH 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 As13 Path: 9 LH 3 0 5 3 1 1 0 4 0 0 RF 1 0 7 6 0 6 1 8 1 2 As14 Path: 7 LF 3 4 9 5 0 6 3 14 0 0 LH 0 0 3 3 0 1 0 5 0 0 RF 3 2 7 4 0 6 2 11 0 0 RH 0 0 1 7 0 1 0 4 0 0 Total: 55 21 204 113 2 98 13 237 9 3 755 observations (7%) (3%) (27%) (15%) (0.3%) (13%) (2%) (31%) (1%) (0.4%)

    The second most commonly identified pathology was enthesopathy (Fig. 1B), representing 27% of all pathologies observed (Table 3). Enthesopathy was present in 18/21 elephants (43/52 feet). Commonly affected regions were the metapodial bones (32%), proximal phalanges (27%), sesamoids (21%) and CMC/TMT joints (18%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (27%), DIV (24%), DV (23%) and DII (19%), whilst DI appeared least frequently affected (6%). A GEE (negative binomial model) found enthesopathy was more commonly observed in Asian compared to African elephants (p = 0.001 in the final univariate model); species remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for age (p = 0.3), sex (p = 0.6), and foot type (p = 0.8) in the multivariable modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, enthesopathy was almost always observed in multiple feet (13/14 elephants with two or more affected feet versus one elephant with only a single foot affected).

    Figure 2: Transverse CT slices of digits in elephant feet, exhibiting pathological changes. (A) Multiple osseous cyst-like lesions in metacarpal (filled arrowhead) in DV of the right hind foot of ‘African2.’ (B) Solitary osseous cyst-like lesions in the proximal phalanges (filled arrowheads) of DIII and DIV of the left forefoot of ‘African6.’ (C) Soft tissue mineralisation on the palmar aspect of digits (filled arrowheads) in the right forefoot of ‘Asian4’. (D) Osteitis of the proximal phalanx (arrow) and infectious osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint (filled arrowhead) in DIV of the left forefoot of ‘Asian14.’

    Osseous cyst-like lesions of bone (Figs. 2A and 2B) represented 15% of all pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 20/21 elephants (39/52 feet). Commonly affected structures were the metapodial (56%) and proximal phalangeal bones (28%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (27%), DIII (24%), DII (21%) and DV (19%), whilst DI appeared least affected (10%). A GEE (negative binomial model) found that osseous cyst-like lesions were more commonly observed in females compared to males (p = 0.01 in the final univariate model); sex remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for species (p = 0.3), age (p = 0.5) and foot type (p = 0.2) in the multivariate modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, osseous cyst-like lesions were generally observed in multiple feet (10/15 elephants with two or more affected feet, versus five elephants with only a single foot affected).

    Osteoarthritis (OA; Fig. 1B) represented 13% of all pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 14/21 elephants (28/52 feet). Commonly affected joints were the carpometacarpal/tarsometatarsal joints (46%), metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joint (36%), and proximal interphalangeal joint (10%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (28%), DIV (25%), DII (24%) and DI (12%), whilst DV appeared least affected by OA (11%). A GEE (negative binomial model) found that OA increased with age (p = 0.02 in the final univariate model); age remained significant (p = 0.05) after accounting for foot type (p = 0.6), sex (p = 0.6), and species (p = 0.9) in the multivariate modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, OA was almost always observed in multiple feet (9/10 elephants with two or more affected feet, versus one elephant with only a single foot affected).

    Soft tissue mineralisation (Figs. 1D and 2C) represented 7% of all pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 9/21 elephants (17/52 feet). These mineralisations were identified having similar interdigital, frequently linear structure in all limbs. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, mineralisation was generally observed in multiple feet (4/6 elephants with two or more feet affected, versus two elephants with only a single foot affected).

    Osteitis (Fig. 2D) represented 3% of all pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 7/21 elephants (9/52 feet). Commonly affected regions were the proximal and middle phalanges (33% and 29% of observations, respectively), metapodials (24%), and sesamoids (14%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (48% of osteitis observed here), DIII (38%), whilst DV (10%) and DII (5%) appeared least affected. DI was not affected in any limb studied. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, osteitis was observed roughly equally affecting multiple feet versus just one foot (2/5 elephants versus three elephants, respectively).

    Infectious osteoarthritis (Fig. 2D) represented 2% of all pathology observed (Table 3), present in 7/21 elephants (8/52 feet), or 13 joints in total. In 7/8 feet, bone(s) adjacent to the affected joints were also observed with osteitis. Commonly affected joints were the MCP/MTP (46%), PIP (38%) and DIP joints (15%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (54%), DIII (38%) and DV (8%). DI and DII were unaffected in any limb. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, infectious OA was generally only observed in one foot (5/6 elephants with a single affected foot, versus only one elephant with multiple feet affected).

    Subluxation (Fig. 1D) of a joint represented 1% of all pathology observed (Table 3), present in five out of 21 elephants (8/52 feet). The MCP/MTP, PIP and DIP joints were equally affected. Digits were also fairly equally affected. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, subluxation was observed roughly equally affecting multiple feet versus just one foot (two elephants versus three elephants, respectively). Complete luxation was not observed in any joint in this study.

    Fractures (Fig. 1A) represented <1% of all pathology observed (Table 3), present in only 3/21 elephants (3/52 feet). Two of the fractures were identified in the distal phalanx of DIII, and one was of the middle phalanx of DIV.

    In addition to the categories of pathology listed in Table 2, we observed focal hyperattenuating (i.e., highly dense) regions within the medullary cavities of long bones (Fig. 1C) in two out of 21 elephants (2/52 feet). Three hyperattenuating regions were observed in total: two in the metacarpals of digit III (different feet of different elephants), and one in the proximal phalanx of digit II.

    In this study, multiple types of pathology were identified in most feet: out of 52 feet, two were observed with all nine pathological categories listed in Table 2, two feet with eight categories, three feet with seven categories, seven feet with six categories, 12 feet with five categories, six feet with four categories, three feet with three categories, and eight feet with two categories. Only three feet were observed with a single category of pathology, and six feet (11.5% of limbs) had no evidence of pathology.

    Anatomical variations

    In the CT images evaluated, the configuration of the proximal sesamoid bones was variable: they were sometimes present as a pair, commonly fused together (appearing as a single bone), and occasionally absent from scans altogether (i.e., not visible as either an ossified bone or as an obvious soft tissue structure; Figs. 3A and 3D).

    Figure 3: Transverse CT slices of elephants’ feet, showing the sesamoids. (A) Completely unossified prepollex (red box) in the right forefoot of ‘Asian4.’ Note also the single sesamoid of DI (arrow) and the paired proximal sesamoids of other digits (filled arrowheads). (B) Sparsely mineralised prepollex (red box) in right forefoot of ‘African6.’ (C) Medium-sized, discrete ossification of the prepollex (red box) in right forefoot of ‘African2.’ Note also the larger lateral sesamoid of DV (filled arrowhead) compared to the medial sesamoid. (D) Large ossification bounding the outer edges of the prepollex (red box) in right forefoot of ‘Asian12.’ Often, the middle of the predigit will remain partially unossified resulting in a rod-like appearance. Note also fusion of the paired proximal sesamoids (filled arrowheads) in DII–DIV, compared to the unfused sesamoids in (A).

    In digit I, the sesamoids often had the appearance of a single bone (42/52 feet); very occasionally they appeared as a fused pair (3/52 feet), and in only one foot appeared as an unfused pair. The digit I sesamoids were always present in African elephants, but were sometimes missing in the hind feet of Asian elephants (absent in 6/14 Asian elephants, or 8/35 hind feet).

    In our sample of African elephants, the sesamoid bones in the other digits were almost always paired; only two feet out of 17 had fused sesamoids (in digits III and IV in one hind foot, and digit V in another elephant’s forefoot). In Asian elephants the appearance of sesamoids in the other digits varied much more. In digit II, 22 were fused, 12 were paired, and one appeared single. In digit III, 26 were fused, eight were paired, and one was lytic and difficult to assess. In digit IV, 24 were fused, 10 paired, and one absent. In digit V, 12 were fused, 22 paired, and one appeared single. In both species, the lateral sesamoid of digit V was sometimes appreciably larger than the medial sesamoid (Fig. 3C). A GEE (negative binomial model) found that species was a statistically significant predictor (p < 0.0005 in both the multivariate and final univariate model) of amount of sesamoid fusion (i.e., number of fused pairs per foot, not distinguishing which pairs), with Asian elephants possessing more fused sesamoids than African elephants. Sex (p = 0.9), foot type (p = 0.4), and age (p = 0.7) were not significant.

    Ossified predigits (i.e., radial/tibial sesamoids associated with digit I) were more frequently identified in Asian than African elephants. In African elephants, 9/17 feet (3/7 elephants) had evidence of ossified predigits, compared to 27/35 feet (13/14 elephants) in Asian elephants. The extent of ossification was lower in African elephants: seven predigits were minimally ossified and two had intermediate ossification, versus one minimally ossified predigit, six with intermediate ossification, and 20 extensively ossified predigits in Asian elephants. Figure 3 shows the different degrees of predigit ossification observed. A GEE (repeated measures ordinal logistic model) found that species was a statistically significant predictor of presence and extent of predigit ossification (p = 0.009). Within each species, neither age (p < 0.9 in African elephants and p = 0.5 in Asian elephants) nor foot type (fore versus hind; p < 0.9 for African elephants and p = 0.7 for Asian elephants) were found to be statistically significant predictors of predigit ossification.

    We observed multipartite distal phalanges (Fig. 4) in 36 digits of 23 feet (12 elephants; all Asian). Most were bipartite (27/36), but some were tripartite (9/36). Multipartite distal phalanges were most frequently identified in DV (16/36), DIII (9/36), DIV (6/36), and DII (5/36). DI had none. A GEE (negative binomial model) found that, within Asian elephants, neither age, sex nor foot type were statistically significant predictors of multipartite distal phalanges (p = 0.3, p = 0.1, p = 0.1 respectively).

    Figure 4: Three-dimensional reconstructions from CT scans. (A) Dorsal view of the left forefoot of ‘Asian5’, showing tripartite distal phalanx of DIII (arrows; also CT appearance inset) and misshapen middle phalanges of DII and DIV (unfilled arrowheads). The middle phalanx of DII is wedge shaped, whilst that of DIV is wedged-shaped with a scalloped distal aspect and missing distal phalanx (filled arrowhead). (B) Dorso-lateral view of the right hind foot of ‘Asian9’ showing the bipartite distal phalanx (arrow) and missing middle phalanx (filled arrowhead) of DV.

    We observed 25 atypically shaped phalanges in 17 feet of 11 elephants (10 Asian and one African). Affected bones were most often middle phalanges (23/25 bones), but one proximal and one distal phalanx were also observed to have atypical shapes. The shape of the bones varied, but most appeared wedge-shaped (Fig. 4A) due to relative shortening of the bone’s abaxial aspect and/or mediolateral narrowing (18/25 bones). Others appeared very rounded with loss of the typical rhomboidal shape (5/25 bones), and occasionally bones had a scalloped appearance of the articular surface (2/25 bones; see Figs. 1C and 4A). Atypically shaped phalanges were most often observed in DIV (11/25 bones) and DII (9/25 bones), with fewer seen in DI (3/25 bones) and DV (2/25 bones). No atypically shaped bones were observed in DIII. A GEE (negative binomial model) found age (p = 0.002), species (p = 0.02) and foot type (p = 0.01) to be statistically significant predictors of atypically-shaped phalanges, being more frequent in younger elephants, Asian elephants, and hind feet (20 bones in 12 hind feet vs five bones in five forefeet) in multivariate modelling. Sex was not significant (p = 0.8).

    Phalangeal number varied between digits and feet. All African elephants had only the proximal phalanx in DI of their forefeet, and no phalangeal bones visible in DI of their hind feet. The distal phalanx of DII was occasionally absent (2/10 African forefeet and 3/7 hind feet). The distal phalanx was always absent from DV in all African elephant feet. Subjectively, Asian elephants appeared to exhibit slightly more variability in phalangeal number. All Asian elephants lacked at least the middle phalanx in DI of their forefeet, however some also lacked the distal phalanx (9/18 Asian forefeet), and one foot lacked all phalanges in DI. In the hind feet of Asian elephants, some lacked only the distal phalanx from digit I (2/17 hind feet), some also lacked the middle phalanx (4/17), and most lacked all three (11/17). In DII, 1/17 hind feet was missing a middle phalanx and 1/17 was missing a distal phalanx. In DIII, 1/18 forefeet was missing a distal phalanx. In DIV, 4/18 forefeet were missing the distal phalanx and 1/18 forefeet was missing all three phalanges (suspected digital amputation, given the CT appearance). In DV, 3/18 forefeet and 11/17 hind feet were missing the middle phalanx (Fig. 4B), whilst 1/17 hind feet was missing both middle and distal phalanges.

    Discussion

    All elephants and almost all feet in this study were found with lesions likely to represent clinically important pathology. The elephants in our study are a biased population in this regard—though cause of death was not always clearly specified, it appears at least five of the 21 elephants died or were euthanised in part due to foot or joint problems. Despite this, our findings reinforce the longstanding concern that foot problems are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in captive elephants (Steel, 1885; Fowler, 2001; Luikart & Stover, 2005; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012).

    In addition to foot problems that are widely acknowledged in the literature on elephant pathologies (OA, infectious OA, osteitis, fractures and subluxation), we have observed remodelling of bones, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions, soft tissue mineralisation and hyperattenuating bone foci. We also found atypically shaped and absent phalanges, though any pathological significance of these features is unclear. Most of the elephant feet in this study had several pathological diagnoses (Table 3), supporting the notion that the different types of pathology have common causes, and/or that the establishment of one disease process may predispose elephants to developing others. For many types of pathology, multiple feet from the same elephant were affected, consistent with a generalised predisposition (e.g., husbandry, obesity; see also Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016) rather than singular cause. Most of our findings generally fall into three (sometimes overlapping) categories: lesions related to weight-bearing and loading of tissues, lesions related to ascending infection, and variable anatomy with unclear pathological significance.

    Loading appears to have a significant influence on the development of pathology. A large proportion of the identified pathology was concentrated on the lateral three digits (remodelling, enthesopathy, osteitis, and infectious OA) or middle three digits (OA and osseous cyst like lesions); digits III and IV being the common denominator in both cases. The body weight of elephants is thought to be principally borne by the middle three digits (DII, DIII, and DIV) (Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012), with the lateral three digits (DIII, DIV, DV) typically experiencing the greatest pressures during walking (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012). Contrary to expectations, we did not find the forelimbs to be significantly more affected by pathology than the hind limbs (Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000), despite bearing a greater proportion of bodyweight (−60%; Genin et al., 2010). However, pressures on the forefeet are only higher in some instances and regions (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012). Additionally, the digital cushions and predigits differ between fore and hind feet (Weissengruber, 2006; Hutchinson et al., 2011), and the limbs may be used differently in different styles of locomotion or other behaviours, potentially resulting in different patterns of loading between feet.

    In OA, the link to increased or altered loading (via obesity or poor conformation) is fairly well established, though other factors (including trauma) may be involved (Fowler, 2006; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012). For other (putative) types of pathology, such as remodelling, enthesopathy and soft tissue mineralisation, the link to large or abnormal loads is hypothesised from other species. Enthesopathy in humans can be seen in degenerative, inflammatory or metabolic diseases (Ruhoy, Schweitzer & Resnick, 1998), and with aging (Shaibani, Workman & Rothschild, 1993). But animal models show that enthesopathy can also occur without tendon microtears or inflammation and may be an adaptive response to loading (Benjamin, Rufai & Ralphs, 2000). Remodelling and enthesopathy are both frequently observed in rhinos and thought to reflect tissue loading (Regnault et al., 2013; Galateanu et al., 2013; Stilson, Hopkins & Davis, 2016). The linear appearance and the location of soft tissue mineralisation in our elephants suggest that the digital flexor tendons are the affected structures. Mineralisation of the deep digital flexor tendon in horses has been observed as a response to chronic injury (Dyson, 2003b), and general mineralisation has been described as a feature of tendinopathy (tendon disease arising from overuse) and following trauma in other species (O’Brien et al., 2012). The magnitude of load experienced by structures may be a factor (especially in OA and remodelling, which both increase with increasing age and therefore presumably body weight), as might the type of loading; e.g., altered locomotion or long periods of standing. As elephants are both very large and long-lived, they may be more predisposed to loading-associated pathology and/or bone remodelling (perhaps including the variable sesamoid and phalangeal bone appearances described below) compared with other species. Indeed, as ossification of the foot and other limb bones tends to begin relatively late in elephants (Hautier et al., 2012) and their growth plates also tend to close late in life (uncertain and variable timing but roughly at 8–20 years of age; Roth, 1984; Siegal-Willott et al., 2008), the growth patterns of elephant feet (and perhaps limbs more generally) may leave them more vulnerable to accumulation of pathologies, although much more research is required to test this speculation.

    Osteitis and infectious OA often result from spreading soft tissue infections, or penetration of a foreign object into the foot (Fowler, 2006). Our study found the proximal bones and joints to be more affected, compared to the distal and middle phalanges more often reported in other studies (Fowler, 2006 citing Gage, 1999 and Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000); this apparent discrepancy might be best explained by variability and sample sizes in both cases.

    We observed subluxation and fracture, which may result from trauma but may also sometimes be incidental findings (for example, fracture of the distal phalanx in elephants; Fowler, 2006). Post-mortem fracture or manipulation of bones out of congruency also cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, we frequently observed multipartite distal phalanges that appear very similar to fractured phalanges but that we inferred to be a distinct entity, based on the lack of callus or bone reaction. The phalanges resembled the incompletely ossified distal phalanges observed radiographically in juvenile Asian elephants (Siegal-Willott et al., 2008). The affected elephants in our study were also all Asian (no African), and the distal phalanges of the lateral digits (DV and to a lesser degree, DIV) were most frequently observed to be multipartite. Like Siegal-Willott et al. (2008), we found bipartite phalanges (called ‘unilateral wing lucencies’) more common that tripartite phalanges (‘bilateral wing lucencies’). We observed multipartite distal phalanges in elephants up to 55 years old, and so it seems that the ossification centres of these bones may not always fuse with age (similar to multipartite sesamoids). We acknowledge that the distinction between fracture and a congenitally multipartite bone can be subtle (or even impossible with chronic fractures; Morandi, 2012), and that the pathological significance of either condition appears negligible in the distal phalanx.

    It is important that veterinarians and radiologists are aware of such apparently normal anatomical variations and incidental lesions when evaluating pathology in the feet. Best-known amongst these is variable phalangeal number, especially in DI and DV (Ramsay & Henry, 2001; Fowler, 2006; Hutchinson et al., 2008; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012). Our data also support this longstanding observation of elephants, and confirm that digits II, III and IV generally have three phalanges (although exceptions existed, especially amongst Asian elephants). Atypically shaped phalanges are another source of anatomical variation observed in this study.

    Sesamoid bones also had variable appearances—not only the proximal sesamoid bones (generally paired bones in other species but which may be fused or asymmetrical in elephants), but also the predigits. These false ‘sixth toes’ seem to be modified sesamoids that start out as cartilaginous rods but may later ossify (Hutchinson et al., 2011). In our elephant sample (with sample overlap from those of Hutchinson et al., 2011), the predigits ranged from completely non-ossified (visible as a hollow cartilaginous rod), to small and patchy regions of mineral attenuation, to large discrete pieces of bone, to long, elaborate and jointed structures curving around to the back of the foot. Within the same animal, the degree of mineralisation in pairs of forefeet or hind feet was consistent, but could vary between fore and hind limbs.

    We found that Asian elephants showed a greater tendency towards ossification of the predigits. Presence of sesamoid bones at joints has been linked to increased OA by some studies (e.g., Pritchett, 1984; Hagihara et al., 1993), though not others (e.g., Muehleman, Williams & Bareither, 2009). The possible link to OA in humans has prompted the hypothesis that sesamoids may predispose joints to developing disease, or that both OA and sesamoids are linked by an underlying process (i.e., tendency for endochondral ossification; Sarin et al., 1999). Although we did not find significantly more OA in Asian compared to African elephants, we did find more enthesopathy, more sesamoid fusion, and multipartite distal phalanges (indicating multiple unfused ossification centres). Along with their greater predigit ossification, these findings lead us to speculate that Asian elephants might have an increased tendency for endochondral ossification (in their distal limbs) than African elephants. This could explain some differences in disease prevalence and bone anatomy.

    Of our findings, only the osseous cyst-like lesions and hyperattenuating regions do not clearly fit into the categories of lesions related to loading, infection, or incidental finding/variable anatomy. Osseous cyst-like lesions may be secondary to OA, osteochondrosis (particularly if subchondral), ischaemic necrosis, haemorrhage, or vascular malformation (Carlson & Weisbrode, 2006). Like our elephants, sex-based biases in cyst prevalence have been noted in humans (O’Donnell, 2009) and some other animals (Craig, Dittmer & Thompson, 2016). The hyperattenuating regions resemble enostoses (benign foci of dense bone), which are sometimes associated with lameness in horses (Dyson, 2003a). The cause is unknown, but contributing factors may include excess dietary calcium (Carciofi & Do Prado Saad, 2008).

    Conclusions

    Though a small proportion of our elephants were previously known to have foot or joint problems, the generally high level of pathology found in our study highlights the need for continuing vigilance regarding elephant foot health. We should not be complacent with lack of lameness or externally apparent signs. A comprehensive evaluation of foot health in elephants should therefore include ‘baseline’ foot radiographs to establish the ‘normal’ anatomy for that individual, and annual assessment thereafter using radiographic protocols with standard views optimal for the detection of pathological lesions (Mumby et al., 2013). In addition, weight management, regular exercise, a clean and appropriate environment (with minimal time spent on hard surfaces; Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016), and other measures to prevent over-loading, injury and infection should not be overlooked.

    Supplemental Information Raw data (lesions graded from CT scans)

    Sheet 1 is the raw collected data, sheet 2 contains a summary of the elephants, predigits, sesamoids and grade 2 + pathology, sheet 3 contains the raw data for misshapen or missing phalanges.



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