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A2040-440 | Assessment: IBM WebSphere Portal and Portal Products Fundamentals

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A2040-440 - Assessment: IBM WebSphere Portal and Portal Products Fundamentals - braindump

Vendor IBM
Exam Number A2040-440
Exam Name Assessment: IBM WebSphere Portal and Portal Products Fundamentals
Questions 124 Q & A
Recent Update October 15, 2018
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A2040-440 exam Dumps Source : Assessment: IBM WebSphere Portal and Portal Products Fundamentals

Test Code : A2040-440
Test Name : Assessment: IBM WebSphere Portal and Portal Products Fundamentals
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 124 Real Questions

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IBM Assessment: IBM WebSphere Portal

IBM links Google devices to WebSphere Portal | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

First identify: ultimate identify: e-mail address: Password: verify Password: Username:

Title: C-level/President manager VP body of workers (affiliate/Analyst/etc.) Director

feature:

position in IT choice-making system: Align business & IT dreams Create IT approach assess IT wants manipulate supplier Relationships evaluate/Specify brands or vendors different position Authorize Purchases not involved

Work mobilephone: enterprise: company size: trade: road handle city: Zip/postal code State/Province: nation:

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what is IAM? id and access administration explained | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IAM definition

id and access administration (IAM) in business IT is set defining and managing the roles and entry privileges of particular person community clients and the cases through which users are granted (or denied) these privileges. those users could be purchasers (customer identity management) or employees (worker id management. The core aim of IAM techniques is one digital identification per individual. once that digital identification has been dependent, it ought to be maintained, modified and monitored during each and every person’s “access lifecycle.” 

consequently, the overarching aim of identity management is to “furnish access to the correct business assets to the right users within the appropriate context, from a user’s system onboarding to permission authorizations to the offboarding of that person as obligatory in a well timed style,” in response to Yassir Abousselham, senior vice chairman and chief safety officer for Okta, an enterprise identity and access administration issuer. 

IAM methods supply administrators with the equipment and applied sciences to exchange a person’s position, music person activities, create studies on those activities, and implement policies on an ongoing basis. These methods are designed to supply a method of administering user entry throughout an entire enterprise and to ensure compliance with corporate policies and govt laws. 

IAM tools

identity and management technologies encompass (however aren’t constrained to) password-management equipment, provisioning software, safety-coverage enforcement applications, reporting and monitoring apps and identification repositories. identity management systems are available for on-premises techniques, akin to Microsoft SharePoint, in addition to for cloud-based mostly methods, akin to Microsoft office 365. 

In its Tech Tide: id and entry management, this autumn 2017, Forrester research recognized six IAM applied sciences with low maturity, but excessive present business cost:

API safety makes it possible for IAM for use with B2B commerce, integration with the cloud, and microservices-primarily based IAM architectures. Forrester sees API security options getting used for single sign-on (SSO) between cellular applications or user-managed entry. this could allow security teams to control IoT machine authorization and in my opinion identifiable information.

client identity and entry management (CIAM) allow "complete management and authentication of users; self-service and profile administration; and integration with CRM, ERP, and different consumer management systems and databases," based on the document.

identification analytics (IA) will enable protection groups to notice and forestall harmful id behaviors the usage of rules, computer researching, and different statistical algorithms.

identity as a service (IDaaS) comprises "utility-as-a-carrier (SaaS) solutions thatoffer SSO from a portal to net functions and native cell purposes in addition to some stage of person account provisioning and entry request administration," in accordance with the report

identification management and governance (IMG) offers computerized and repeatable ways to govern the identification life cycle. here's vital when it comes to compliance with id and privateness rules.

risk-primarily based authentication (RBA) solutions "take up the context of a user session and authentication and kind a possibility rating. The enterprise can then on the spot high-chance users for 2FA and enable low-possibility users to authenticate with single component (e.g., username plus password) credentials," according to the document. (For extra on authentication, see "ready for greater secure authentication? are trying these password alternatives and enhancements.")

IAM systems must be flexible and powerful sufficient to accommodate the complexities of nowadays’s computing ambiance. One motive: An commercial enterprise’s computing atmosphere was mostly on-premises, and identity administration methods authenticated and tracked clients as they labored on-premises, says Jackson Shaw, vp of product management for identification and entry administration provider One identity. “There was once a security fence across the premises,” Shaw cited. “these days, that fence isn’t there anymore.” 

As a consequence, identity administration systems these days should still allow administrators to comfortably manipulate entry privileges for a lot of clients, together with domestic on-site personnel and foreign off-web site contractors; hybrid compute environments that encompass on-premise computing, software as a carrier (SaaS) functions and shadow IT and BYOD users; and computing architectures that encompass UNIX, home windows, Macintosh, iOS, Android and even information superhighway of issues (IoT) contraptions.

finally, the identification and access management equipment should still permit centralized management of clients “in a consistent and scalable manner throughout the business,” says Abousselham.

In recent years, identity-as-a-carrier (IDaaS) has developed as a 3rd-party managed carrier provided over the cloud on a subscription basis, proposing identification management to a valued clientele’ on-premises and cloud-based mostly systems.

Why do i need IAM? 

identity and access management is a vital part of any enterprise safety plan, because it is inextricably linked to the security and productiveness of companies in these days’s digitally enabled financial system. 

Compromised person credentials frequently serve as an entry aspect into a firm’s network and its information property. businesses use id management to shield their guidance belongings in opposition t the rising threats of ransomware, criminal hacking, phishing and other malware attacks. global ransomware damage charges alone are expected to exceed $5 billion this 12 months, up 15 percent from 2016, Cybersecurity Ventures predicted.

in lots of corporations, users occasionally have greater entry privileges than necessary. a sturdy IAM device can add a crucial layer of insurance plan via guaranteeing a consistent application of consumer access rules and guidelines across an organization.    

id and access administration techniques can enhance business productivity. The techniques’ imperative management capabilities can in the reduction of the complexity and value of safeguarding user credentials and entry. at the equal time, identity management programs permit employees to be more productive (while staying comfy) in lots of environments, whether they’re working from domestic, the workplace, or on the highway. 

What IAM potential for compliance management

Many governments require firms to care about identity management. rules corresponding to Sarbanes-Oxley, Gramm-Leach-Bliley, and HIPAA hold agencies in charge for controlling access to customer and worker suggestions. id management techniques can help groups conform to those laws. 

The ordinary facts insurance plan regulation (GDPR) is a more contemporary rules that requires potent security and consumer entry controls. GDPR mandates that businesses protect the personal information and privacy of European Union residents. valuable can also 2018, the GDPR influences every business that does company in eu international locations and/or has European citizens as valued clientele.

On March 1, 2017, the state of ny’s branch of monetary services (NYDFS) new cybersecurity laws went into impact. The laws prescribe many requirements for the protection operations of monetary capabilities companies that function in new york, including the deserve to monitor the actions of authorized clients and retain audit logs—some thing id management techniques typically do. 

by means of automating many aspects of proposing cozy person entry to business networks and data, id management programs relieve IT of mundane however important initiatives and aid them live in compliance with government laws. These are vital advantages, since today, every IT place is a security place; there’s a persistent, global cybersecurity group of workers scarcity; and penalties for now not being compliant with valuable rules can cost an organization hundreds of thousands or even billions of dollars. 

What are the benefits of IAM techniques  

enforcing identification and access administration and associated premier practices may give you a major competitive abilities in a couple of methods. these days, most companies need to provide users backyard the company access to inside systems. Opening your community to shoppers, partners, suppliers, contractors and, of path, personnel can boost effectivity and decrease working fees. 

id management systems can enable a corporation to lengthen entry to its tips systems across loads of on-premises functions, cell apps, and SaaS tools devoid of compromising security. by using providing more suitable entry to outsiders, which you could power collaboration all over your corporation, improving productiveness, worker pride, analysis and construction, and, finally, income. 

identity management can reduce the number of aid-desk calls to IT aid teams concerning password resets. identification management programs enable administrators to automate these and different time-drinking, costly initiatives. 

An identification management device can also be a cornerstone of a secure network, because managing user identity is an important piece of the access-handle graphic. An identity administration equipment all but requires companies to define their access guidelines, notably outlining who has access to which facts elements and below which conditions they have access. 

subsequently, smartly-managed identities suggest enhanced handle of person access, which interprets right into a decreased chance of internal and external breaches. here's critical as a result of, together with the rising threats of exterior threats, interior assaults are all too typical. approximately 60 % of all statistics breaches are caused by way of a firm’s personal personnel, in keeping with IBM’s 2016 Cyber safety Intelligence Index. Of these, seventy five percent had been malicious in intent; 25 % have been accidental. 

As outlined in the past, IAM system can bolster regulatory compliance by means of offering the equipment to implement finished safety, audit and entry guidelines. Many programs now give aspects designed to be sure that a company is in compliance. 

How IAM works

In years previous, a standard id management equipment comprised 4 fundamental features: a directory of the personal records the gadget uses to outline individual users (suppose of it as an id repository); a set of equipment for adding, editing and deleting that facts (regarding entry lifecycle management); a system that regulates user entry (enforcement of protection guidelines and access privileges); and an auditing and reporting equipment (to investigate what’s happening to your device). 

Regulating person access has historically concerned a couple of authentication strategies for verifying the identification of a person, together with passwords, digital certificates, tokens and sensible cards. Hardware tokens and credit-card-sized wise cards served as one component in two-aspect authentication, which combines something you be aware of (your password) with some thing you've got (the token or the card) to investigate your identification. a sensible card includes an embedded integrated circuit chip that will also be either a at ease microcontroller or equivalent intelligence with interior reminiscence or a reminiscence chip alone. application tokens, that could exist on any gadget with storage potential, from a USB drive to a cellphone, emerged in 2005. 

In these days’s complicated compute environments, together with heightened security threats, a strong consumer identify and password doesn’t cut it anymore. today, identification management programs frequently contain points of biometrics, desktop studying and artificial intelligence, and chance-primarily based authentication. 

on the user degree, fresh person authentication methods are helping to superior offer protection to identities. as an example, the recognition of contact identification-enabled iPhones has familiarized many people with the usage of their fingerprints as an authentication system. more moderen windows 10 computer systems present fingerprint sensors or iris scanning for biometric consumer authentication. The next iPhone, due out later this yr, is rumored to encompass iris scanning or facial cognizance to authenticate clients as a substitute of fingerprint scanning. 

The circulate to multi-aspect authentication

Some groups are relocating from two-component to 3-factor authentication, says Abousselham, combining something you know (your password), whatever thing you have (a smartphone), and some thing you are (facial cognizance, iris scanning or fingerprint sensors). “when you go from two-ingredient to a few, you have got greater assurance that you’re dealing with the suitable consumer,” he says. 

at the administration stage, these days’s identification administration programs present greater advanced user auditing and reporting, thanks to applied sciences reminiscent of context-aware network access handle and chance-primarily based authentication (RBA). 

Context-mindful community access handle is coverage-based. It predetermines an experience as well as its influence according to a variety of attributes, says Joe Diamond, Okta’s director of products. for example, if an IP address isn’t whitelisted, it could be blocked. Or if there isn’t a certificates that indicates a device is managed, then context-aware network entry handle might step-up the authentication process. 

through evaluation, RBA is greater dynamic and is often enabled by using some stage of AI. With RBA, “you’re starting to open up possibility scoring and computer getting to know to an authentication experience,” Diamond says.   

risk-primarily based authentication dynamically applies a number of stages of strictness to authentication strategies in response to the existing risk profile. The larger the chance, the more restrictive the authentication method turns into for a consumer. a transformation in a consumer’s geographic place or IP handle may additionally set off extra authentication requirements before that consumer can access the enterprise’s counsel components. 

what is federated id management? 

Federated identification administration permits you to share digital IDs with relied on partners. It’s an authentication-sharing mechanism that makes it possible for users to employ the same consumer name, password or other identification to gain entry to multiple network 

Single signal-on (SSO) is a crucial part of federated identity administration. A single signal-on typical lets people who check their id on one network, site or app carry over that authenticated status when relocating to a different. The model works most effective among cooperating organizations—referred to as relied on companions—that almost vouch for every different’s clients. 

Are IAM structures based on open specifications?

Authorization messages between trusted companions are often despatched the usage of safety statement Markup Language (SAML). This open specification defines an XML framework for changing protection assertions among security authorities. SAML achieves interoperability across distinctive vendor structures that provide authentication and authorization functions. 

SAML isn’t the best open-normal identity protocol, besides the fact that children. Others include OpenID, WS-have confidence (brief for web functions believe) and WS-Federation (which have company backing from Microsoft and IBM), and OAuth (suggested “Oh-Auth”), which lets a consumer’s account tips be used through third-birthday party capabilities equivalent to fb devoid of exposing the password. 

What are the challenges or risks of imposing IAM?

Dimensional analysis released a document, assessment of id and access administration in 2018, in October 2018 in accordance with a survey of more than 1,000 IT security experts. subsidized by way of IAM answer issuer One id, the report asked these gurus about their biggest IAM challenges.

not surprisingly, fifty nine p.c said that data protection turned into their biggest difficulty about their firm using IAM. handiest 15 % stated they have been fully assured their organization would no longer be hacked due to their access manage equipment.

IAM programs cling the keys to some of an organization’s most valuable property and significant programs, so the consequences of an IAM system failing are extremely good. certain issues consist of disgruntled personnel sharing sensitive data (27 p.c), the CIO is interviewed on tv because of an information breach because of unhealthy IAM, and discovering their username/password lists posted to the darkish net.

“The thought of placing all your eggs in one basket is scary,” says One identity's Shaw,  "but when you don’t unify the basics of IAM you're going to in no way reduce risk. So the suitable direction is to arrive at a single approach (now not necessarily a single solution) that gives the entire scope, protection and oversight you need (and had been probably struggling to get with older initiatives) throughout everything, all user types, and all access situations.”

security gurus are also concerned about integrating IAM with legacy methods (50 p.c),  moving to the cloud (44 p.c), and employees the use of unapproved technology (43 percent).

tons of that difficulty stems now not from the latest IAM expertise itself, but with their organization’s ability to put into effect it well, believes Shaw. “people have all the time been doing IAM (i.e., authentication, authorization and administration). It’s simply that now they're beginning to recognise that doing these issues poorly places them at heightened chance and leaves the door open to unhealthy actors doing bad things,” he says.

“The largest problem is that historic practices that had been put in location to cozy legacy systems effortlessly don’t work with more recent technologies and practices,” Shaw provides, “so commonly people have to reinvent the wheel and create duplicate workloads and redundant initiatives. If the legacy apply changed into carried out poorly, trying to reinvent it on a newer paradigm will go poorly as smartly.”

Shaw sees confidence and believe in IAM starting to be as companies benefit experience administering the solutions, but that depends on how smartly that administration is performed. “organizations are extra-and-more researching that they can truly unify their administration approach, streamline operations, eradicate a good deal of the workload from IT and place it within the hands of the line-of-business, and location themselves in an audit-able stance in preference to a reactive stance,” he says.

A a success implementation of identity and entry administration requires forethought and collaboration throughout departments. companies that set up a cohesive id management strategy—clear aims, stakeholder purchase-in, described enterprise methods—before they start the challenge are likely to be most a success. id administration works most fulfilling “you probably have human elements, IT, protection and other departments involved,” says Shaw. 

commonly, id information may additionally come from assorted repositories, such as Microsoft lively listing (advert) or human components purposes. An id management system ought to be able to synchronize the consumer identity counsel across all these methods, presenting a single supply of actuality. 

Given the scarcity of IT individuals these days, id and entry management programs have to enable a company to control lots of clients in distinctive cases and computing environments—automatically and in true-time. Manually adjusting entry privileges and controls for a whole bunch or heaps of clients isn’t possible.   

as an instance, de-provisioning entry privileges for departing personnel can fall throughout the cracks, specifically when executed manually, which is just too often the case. Reporting an worker’s departure from the company after which immediately de-provisioning entry throughout all the apps, features and hardware she or he used requires an automatic, finished identity administration solution. 

Authentication ought to even be handy for clients to operate, it should be convenient for IT to installation, and notably it must be secure, Abousselham says. This money owed for why mobile contraptions are “fitting the center of person authentication,” he added, “as a result of smartphones can supply a person’s present geolocation, IP handle and other tips that may also be leveraged for authentication functions.” 

One risk value protecting in intellect: Centralized operations existing tempting pursuits to hackers and crackers. via placing a dashboard over all of a company’s id management actions, these systems in the reduction of complexity for more than the directors. as soon as compromised, they may permit an interloper to create IDs with wide privileges and entry to many supplies. 

What IAM terms  should i do know? 

Buzzwords come and go, however just a few keyword phrases within the identification administration area are value understanding: 

  • entry administration: access management refers back to the strategies and applied sciences used to handle and monitor community entry. access management aspects, similar to authentication, authorization, have faith and protection auditing, are part and parcel of the accurate identification administration systems for both on-premises and cloud-primarily based techniques. 
  • lively listing (ad): Microsoft developed advert as a user-identity listing service for windows domain networks. although proprietary, ad is protected within the windows Server operating equipment and is as a result widely deployed. 
  • Biometric authentication: A protection manner for authenticating clients that depends upon the user’s pleasing qualities. Biometric authentication applied sciences include fingerprint sensors, iris and retina scanning, and facial recognition. 
  • Context-conscious network access handle: Context-aware network entry manage is a coverage-based mostly formula of granting access to community supplies in line with the present context of the user in search of access. for instance, a consumer trying to authenticate from an IP handle that hasn’t been whitelisted can be blocked. 
  • Credential: An identifier employed by means of the consumer to profit access to a network such because the person’s password, public key infrastructure (PKI) certificates, or biometric guidance (fingerprint, iris scan). 
  • De-provisioning: The technique of disposing of an identity from an identity repository and terminating entry privileges. 
  • Digital id: The identity itself, including the description of the user and his/her/its access privileges. (“Its” as a result of an endpoint, reminiscent of a computer or smartphone, can have its own digital id.) 
  • Entitlement: The set of attributes that specify the access rights and privileges of an authenticated safety foremost. 
  • id as a carrier (IDaaS): Cloud-based IDaaS presents identification and entry management performance to a company’s programs that live on-premises and/or in the cloud. 
  • id lifecycle management: comparable to entry lifecycle administration, the time period refers to the whole set of procedures and applied sciences for protecting and updating digital identities. identity lifecycle management includes identity synchronization, provisioning, de-provisioning, and the continued management of user attributes, credentials and entitlements. 
  • identity synchronization: The method of guaranteeing that diverse identification shops—say, the outcomes of an acquisition—contain consistent records for a given digital identity. 
  • light-weight directory access Protocol (LDAP): LDAP is open requirements-based protocol for managing and having access to a allotted directory service, akin to Microsoft’s ad 
  • Multi-element authentication (MFA): MFA is when more than just a single element, such as a consumer name and password, is required for authentication to a network or system. at least one extra step is additionally required, reminiscent of receiving a code despatched by way of SMS to a smartphone, inserting a smart card or USB stick, or gratifying a biometric authentication requirement, corresponding to a fingerprint scan. 
  • Password reset: during this context, it’s a characteristic of an id management device that enables users to re-set up their personal passwords, relieving the directors of the job and cutting assist calls. The reset application is frequently accessed with the aid of the consumer via a browser. The application asks for a secret note or a collection of questions to examine the person’s id. 
  • Privileged account administration:  This time period refers to managing and auditing bills and data access according to the privileges of the user. In general terms, because of his or her job or characteristic, a privileged user has been granted administrative entry to programs. A privileged person, for instance, could be capable deploy and delete user bills and roles.Provisioning: The system of creating identities, defining their access privileges and adding them to an id repository. 
  • risk-based mostly authentication (RBA): chance-based mostly authentication dynamically adjusts authentication requirements based on the person’s condition in the intervening time authentication is tried. for instance, when users try to authenticate from a geographic region or IP handle no longer prior to now associated with them, those users might also face further authentication requirements. 
  • safety foremost: A digital identification with one or more credentials that can also be authenticated and licensed to engage with the community. 
  • Single sign-on (SSO): a type of entry handle for varied related but separate techniques. With a single username and password, a user can entry a system or systems with out the usage of distinctive credentials.
  • user behavior analytics (UBA): UBA technologies assess patterns of user conduct and automatically observe algorithms and evaluation to notice important anomalies that may indicate skills security threats. UBA differs from other safety applied sciences, which focal point on tracking gadgets or security routine. UBA is also from time to time grouped with entity habits analytics and referred to as UEBA.  
  • IAM carriers

    The identification and access administration dealer landscape is a crowded one, such as both pureplay providers comparable to Okta and OneLogin and big providers similar to IBM, Microsoft and Oracle.  below is a listing of main gamers based on Gartner’s Magic Quadrant for access administration, international, which changed into published in June 2017.

  • Atos (Evidan)
  • CA technologies
  • Centrify
  • Covisint
  • ForgeRock
  • IBM security id and access Assurance
  • I-Spring innovations
  • Micro focal point
  • Microsoft Azure lively listing
  • Okta
  • OneLogin
  • optimal idM
  • Oracle identity Cloud carrier
  • Ping
  • SecureAuth
  • related video:


    SBI To purchase belongings worth Rs 45,000 Crore From Liquidity Starve NBFCs | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    JAVED SAIFI | 0

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    | October 10 , 2018 , 13:10 IST

    State-owned State financial institution of India (SBI) has decided to buy assets value Rs forty five,000 crore from liquidity starved Non-banking fiscal businesses (NBFCs), media pronounced on Tuesday. 

    earlier, SBI was planning to buy belongings value Rs 15,000 crore from NBFCs but has decided to buy additional property value Rs 30,000 crore to improve its personal loan portfolio.

    “financial institution had originally deliberate for a growth of Rs 15,000 crore through portfolio purchase all the way through the present yr which is now being stronger. As per the bank’s inside evaluation, there may be a chance to purchase further portfolio within the range of Rs 20,000 to Rs 30,000 crore,” SBI observed in a press release.

    NBFCs are facing liquidity difficulty brought on through a number of debt repayment defaults with the aid of Infrastructure Leasing & economic functions (IL&FS) neighborhood and its subsidiaries.

    also study: FM Arun Jaitley Assures guide To NBFCs And SMEs

    The deal would aid both, as NBFCs will get liquidity and SBI will get respectable personal loan portfolio.

    PK Gupta Managing Director of SBI was quoted PTI as asserting, “this is a pretty good industrial chance for the bank to boost personal loan portfolio as NBFCs property are available at eye-catching quotes.”

    in keeping with stories, the country wide Housing financial institution (NHB), which regulates the NBFCs has additionally guaranteed to refinance NBFCs through Rs 30,000 crore.

    up to now, on September 24 Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley had referred to that the executive will take all measures to make certain that adequate liquidity is maintained for the NBFCs.




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    What is IAM? Identity and access management explained | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    IAM definition

    Identity and access management (IAM) in enterprise IT is about defining and managing the roles and access privileges of individual network users and the circumstances in which users are granted (or denied) those privileges. Those users might be customers (customer identity management) or employees (employee identity management. The core objective of IAM systems is one digital identity per individual. Once that digital identity has been established, it must be maintained, modified and monitored throughout each user’s “access lifecycle.” 

    Thus, the overarching goal of identity management is to “grant access to the right enterprise assets to the right users in the right context, from a user’s system onboarding to permission authorizations to the offboarding of that user as needed in a timely fashion,” according to Yassir Abousselham, senior vice president and chief security officer for Okta, an enterprise identity and access management provider. 

    IAM systems provide administrators with the tools and technologies to change a user’s role, track user activities, create reports on those activities, and enforce policies on an ongoing basis. These systems are designed to provide a means of administering user access across an entire enterprise and to ensure compliance with corporate policies and government regulations. 

    IAM tools

    Identity and management technologies include (but aren’t limited to) password-management tools, provisioning software, security-policy enforcement applications, reporting and monitoring apps and identity repositories. Identity management systems are available for on-premises systems, such as Microsoft SharePoint, as well as for cloud-based systems, such as Microsoft Office 365. 

    In its Tech Tide: Identity and Access Management, Q4 2017, Forrester Research identified six IAM technologies with low maturity, but high current business value:

    API security enables IAM for use with B2B commerce, integration with the cloud, and microservices-based IAM architectures. Forrester sees API security solutions being used for single sign-on (SSO) between mobile applications or user-managed access. This would allow security teams to manage IoT device authorization and personally identifiable data.

    Customer identity and access management (CIAM) allow "comprehensive management and authentication of users; self-service and profile management; and integration with CRM, ERP, and other customer management systems and databases," according to the report.

    Identity analytics (IA) will allow security teams to detect and stop risky identity behaviors using rules, machine learning, and other statistical algorithms.

    Identity as a service (IDaaS) includes "software-as-a-service (SaaS) solutions thatoffer SSO from a portal to web applications and native mobile applications as well as some level of user account provisioning and access request management," according to the report

    Identity management and governance (IMG) provides automated and repeatable ways to govern the identity life cycle. This is important when it comes to compliance with identity and privacy regulations.

    Risk-based authentication (RBA) solutions "take in the context of a user session and authentication and form a risk score. The firm can then prompt high-risk users for 2FA and allow low-risk users to authenticate with single factor (e.g., username plus password) credentials," according to the report. (For more on authentication, see "Ready for more secure authentication? Try these password alternatives and enhancements.")

    IAM systems must be flexible and robust enough to accommodate the complexities of today’s computing environment. One reason: An enterprise’s computing environment used to be largely on-premises, and identity management systems authenticated and tracked users as they worked on-premises, says Jackson Shaw, vice president of product management for identity and access management provider One Identity. “There used to be a security fence around the premises,” Shaw noted. “Today, that fence isn’t there anymore.” 

    As a consequence, identity management systems today should enable administrators to easily manage access privileges for a variety of users, including domestic on-site employees and international off-site contractors; hybrid compute environments that encompass on-premise computing, software as a service (SaaS) applications and shadow IT and BYOD users; and computing architectures that include UNIX, Windows, Macintosh, iOS, Android and even internet of things (IoT) devices.

    Ultimately, the identity and access management system should enable centralized management of users “in a consistent and scalable way across the enterprise,” says Abousselham.

    In recent years, identity-as-a-service (IDaaS) has evolved as a third-party managed service offered over the cloud on a subscription basis, providing identity management to a customers’ on-premises and cloud-based systems.

    Why do I need IAM? 

    Identity and access management is a critical part of any enterprise security plan, as it is inextricably linked to the security and productivity of organizations in today’s digitally enabled economy. 

    Compromised user credentials often serve as an entry point into an organization’s network and its information assets. Enterprises use identity management to safeguard their information assets against the rising threats of ransomware, criminal hacking, phishing and other malware attacks. Global ransomware damage costs alone are expected to exceed $5 billion this year, up 15 percent from 2016, Cybersecurity Ventures predicted.

    In many organizations, users sometimes have more access privileges than necessary. A robust IAM system can add an important layer of protection by ensuring a consistent application of user access rules and policies across an organization.    

    Identity and access management systems can enhance business productivity. The systems’ central management capabilities can reduce the complexity and cost of safeguarding user credentials and access. At the same time, identity management systems enable workers to be more productive (while staying secure) in a variety of environments, whether they’re working from home, the office, or on the road. 

    What IAM means for compliance management

    Many governments require enterprises to care about identity management. Regulations such as Sarbanes-Oxley, Gramm-Leach-Bliley, and HIPAA hold organizations accountable for controlling access to customer and employee information. Identity management systems can help organizations comply with those regulations. 

    The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a more recent regulation that requires strong security and user access controls. GDPR mandates that organizations safeguard the personal data and privacy of European Union citizens. Effective May 2018, the GDPR affects every company that does business in EU countries and/or has European citizens as customers.

    On March 1, 2017, the state of New York’s Department of Financial Services (NYDFS) new cybersecurity regulations went into effect. The regulations prescribe many requirements for the security operations of financial services companies that operate in New York, including the need to monitor the activities of authorized users and maintain audit logs—something identity management systems typically do. 

    By automating many aspects of providing secure user access to enterprise networks and data, identity management systems relieve IT of mundane but important tasks and help them stay in compliance with government regulations. These are critical benefits, given that today, every IT position is a security position; there’s a persistent, global cybersecurity workforce shortage; and penalties for not being compliant with relevant regulations can cost an organization millions or even billions of dollars. 

    What are the benefits of IAM systems  

    Implementing identity and access management and associated best practices can give you a significant competitive advantage in several ways. Nowadays, most businesses need to give users outside the organization access to internal systems. Opening your network to customers, partners, suppliers, contractors and, of course, employees can increase efficiency and lower operating costs. 

    Identity management systems can allow a company to extend access to its information systems across a variety of on-premises applications, mobile apps, and SaaS tools without compromising security. By providing greater access to outsiders, you can drive collaboration throughout your organization, enhancing productivity, employee satisfaction, research and development, and, ultimately, revenue. 

    Identity management can decrease the number of help-desk calls to IT support teams regarding password resets. Identity management systems allow administrators to automate these and other time-consuming, costly tasks. 

    An identity management system can be a cornerstone of a secure network, because managing user identity is an essential piece of the access-control picture. An identity management system all but requires companies to define their access policies, specifically outlining who has access to which data resources and under which conditions they have access. 

    Consequently, well-managed identities mean greater control of user access, which translates into a reduced risk of internal and external breaches. This is important because, along with the rising threats of external threats, internal attacks are all too frequent. Approximately 60 percent of all data breaches are caused by an organization’s own employees, according to IBM’s 2016 Cyber Security Intelligence Index. Of those, 75 percent were malicious in intent; 25 percent were accidental. 

    As mentioned previously, IAM system can bolster regulatory compliance by providing the tools to implement comprehensive security, audit and access policies. Many systems now provide features designed to ensure that an organization is in compliance. 

    How IAM works

    In years past, a typical identity management system comprised four basic elements: a directory of the personal data the system uses to define individual users (think of it as an identity repository); a set of tools for adding, modifying and deleting that data (related to access lifecycle management); a system that regulates user access (enforcement of security policies and access privileges); and an auditing and reporting system (to verify what’s happening on your system). 

    Regulating user access has traditionally involved a number of authentication methods for verifying the identity of a user, including passwords, digital certificates, tokens and smart cards. Hardware tokens and credit-card-sized smart cards served as one component in two-factor authentication, which combines something you know (your password) with something you have (the token or the card) to verify your identity. A smart card carries an embedded integrated circuit chip that can be either a secure microcontroller or equivalent intelligence with internal memory or a memory chip alone. Software tokens, which can exist on any device with storage capability, from a USB drive to a cell phone, emerged in 2005. 

    In today’s complex compute environments, along with heightened security threats, a strong user name and password doesn’t cut it anymore. Today, identity management systems often incorporate elements of biometrics, machine learning and artificial intelligence, and risk-based authentication. 

    At the user level, recent user authentication methods are helping to better protect identities. For example, the popularity of Touch ID-enabled iPhones has familiarized many people with using their fingerprints as an authentication method. Newer Windows 10 computers offer fingerprint sensors or iris scanning for biometric user authentication. The next iPhone, due out later this year, is rumored to include iris scanning or facial recognition to authenticate users instead of fingerprint scanning. 

    The move to multi-factor authentication

    Some organizations are moving from two-factor to three-factor authentication, says Abousselham, combining something you know (your password), something you have (a smartphone), and something you are (facial recognition, iris scanning or fingerprint sensors). “When you go from two-factor to three, you have more assurance that you’re dealing with the correct user,” he says. 

    At the administration level, today’s identity management systems offer more advanced user auditing and reporting, thanks to technologies such as context-aware network access control and risk-based authentication (RBA). 

    Context-aware network access control is policy-based. It predetermines an event as well as its outcome based on various attributes, says Joe Diamond, Okta’s director of products. For example, if an IP address isn’t whitelisted, it may be blocked. Or if there isn’t a certificate that indicates a device is managed, then context-aware network access control might step-up the authentication process. 

    By comparison, RBA is more dynamic and is often enabled by some level of AI. With RBA, “you’re starting to open up risk scoring and machine learning to an authentication event,” Diamond says.   

    Risk-based authentication dynamically applies various levels of strictness to authentication processes according to the current risk profile. The higher the risk, the more restrictive the authentication process becomes for a user. A change in a user’s geographic location or IP address may trigger additional authentication requirements before that user can access the company’s information resources. 

    What is federated identity management? 

    Federated identity management lets you share digital IDs with trusted partners. It’s an authentication-sharing mechanism that allows users to employ the same user name, password or other ID to gain access to more than one network 

    Single sign-on (SSO) is an important part of federated ID management. A single sign-on standard lets people who verify their identity on one network, website or app carry over that authenticated status when moving to another. The model works only among cooperating organizations—known as trusted partners—that essentially vouch for each other’s users. 

    Are IAM platforms based on open standards?

    Authorization messages between trusted partners are often sent using Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML). This open specification defines an XML framework for exchanging security assertions among security authorities. SAML achieves interoperability across different vendor platforms that provide authentication and authorization services. 

    SAML isn’t the only open-standard identity protocol, however. Others include OpenID, WS-Trust (short for Web Services Trust) and WS-Federation (which have corporate backing from Microsoft and IBM), and OAuth (pronounced “Oh-Auth”), which lets a user’s account information be used by third-party services such as Facebook without exposing the password. 

    What are the challenges or risks of implementing IAM?

    Dimensional Research released a report, Assessment of Identity and Access Management in 2018, in October 2018 based on a survey of more than 1,000 IT security professionals. Sponsored by IAM solution provider One Identity, the report asked those professionals about their biggest IAM challenges.

    Not surprisingly, 59 percent said that data protection was their biggest concern about their organization using IAM. Only 15 percent said they were completely confident their organization would not be hacked due to their access control system.

    IAM systems hold the keys to some of a company’s most valuable assets and critical systems, so the consequences of an IAM system failing are great. Specific concerns include disgruntled employees sharing sensitive data (27 percent), the CIO is interviewed on TV because of a data breach due to bad IAM, and finding their username/password lists posted to the dark web.

    “The concept of putting all your eggs in one basket is scary,” says One Identity's Shaw,  "but if you don’t unify the fundamentals of IAM you will never reduce risk. So the correct path is to arrive at a single approach (not necessarily a single solution) that provides all the scope, security and oversight you need (and were probably struggling to get with older projects) across everything, all user types, and all access scenarios.”

    Security professionals are also concerned about integrating IAM with legacy systems (50 percent),  moving to the cloud (44 percent), and employees using unapproved technology (43 percent).

    Much of that concern stems not from the current IAM technology itself, but with their organization’s ability to implement it well, believes Shaw. “People have always been doing IAM (i.e., authentication, authorization and administration). It’s just that now they are beginning to realize that doing those things poorly puts them at heightened risk and leaves the door open to bad actors doing bad things,” he says.

    “The biggest challenge is that old practices that were put in place to secure legacy systems simply don’t work with newer technologies and practices,” Shaw adds, “so often people have to reinvent the wheel and create duplicate workloads and redundant tasks. If the legacy practice was done poorly, trying to reinvent it on a newer paradigm will go poorly as well.”

    Shaw sees confidence and trust in IAM growing as companies gain experience administering the solutions, but that depends on how well that administration is executed. “Organizations are more-and-more learning that they can actually unify their administration approach, streamline operations, remove much of the workload from IT and place it in the hands of the line-of-business, and place themselves in an audit-ready stance rather than a reactive stance,” he says.

    A successful implementation of identity and access management requires forethought and collaboration across departments. Companies that establish a cohesive identity management strategy—clear objectives, stakeholder buy-in, defined business processes—before they begin the project are likely to be most successful. Identity management works best “when you have human resources, IT, security and other departments involved,” says Shaw. 

    Often, identity information may come from multiple repositories, such as Microsoft Active Directory (AD) or human resources applications. An identity management system must be able to synchronize the user identity information across all these systems, providing a single source of truth. 

    Given the shortage of IT people today, identity and access management systems must enable an organization to manage a variety of users in different situations and computing environments—automatically and in real-time. Manually adjusting access privileges and controls for hundreds or thousands of users isn’t feasible.   

    For example, de-provisioning access privileges for departing employees can fall through the cracks, especially when done manually, which is too often the case. Reporting an employee’s departure from the company and then automatically de-provisioning access across all the apps, services and hardware he or she used requires an automated, comprehensive identity management solution. 

    Authentication must also be easy for users to perform, it must be easy for IT to deploy, and above all it must be secure, Abousselham says. This accounts for why mobile devices are “becoming the center of user authentication,” he added, “because smartphones can provide a user’s current geolocation, IP address and other information that can be leveraged for authentication purposes.” 

    One risk worth keeping in mind: Centralized operations present tempting targets to hackers and crackers. By putting a dashboard over all of a company’s identity management activities, these systems reduce complexity for more than the administrators. Once compromised, they could allow an intruder to create IDs with extensive privileges and access to many resources. 

    What IAM terms  should I know? 

    Buzzwords come and go, but a few key terms in the identity management space are worth knowing: 

  • Access management: Access management refers to the processes and technologies used to control and monitor network access. Access management features, such as authentication, authorization, trust and security auditing, are part and parcel of the top ID management systems for both on-premises and cloud-based systems. 
  • Active Directory (AD): Microsoft developed AD as a user-identity directory service for Windows domain networks. Though proprietary, AD is included in the Windows Server operating system and is thus widely deployed. 
  • Biometric authentication: A security process for authenticating users that relies upon the user’s unique characteristics. Biometric authentication technologies include fingerprint sensors, iris and retina scanning, and facial recognition. 
  • Context-aware network access control: Context-aware network access control is a policy-based method of granting access to network resources according to the current context of the user seeking access. For example, a user attempting to authenticate from an IP address that hasn’t been whitelisted would be blocked. 
  • Credential: An identifier employed by the user to gain access to a network such as the user’s password, public key infrastructure (PKI) certificate, or biometric information (fingerprint, iris scan). 
  • De-provisioning: The process of removing an identity from an ID repository and terminating access privileges. 
  • Digital identity: The ID itself, including the description of the user and his/her/its access privileges. (“Its” because an endpoint, such as a laptop or smartphone, can have its own digital identity.) 
  • Entitlement: The set of attributes that specify the access rights and privileges of an authenticated security principal. 
  • Identity as a Service (IDaaS): Cloud-based IDaaS offers identity and access management functionality to an organization’s systems that reside on-premises and/or in the cloud. 
  • Identity lifecycle management: Similar to access lifecycle management, the term refers to the entire set of processes and technologies for maintaining and updating digital identities. Identity lifecycle management includes identity synchronization, provisioning, de-provisioning, and the ongoing management of user attributes, credentials and entitlements. 
  • Identity synchronization: The process of ensuring that multiple identity stores—say, the result of an acquisition—contain consistent data for a given digital ID. 
  • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): LDAP is open standards-based protocol for managing and accessing a distributed directory service, such as Microsoft’s AD 
  • Multi-factor authentication (MFA): MFA is when more than just a single factor, such as a user name and password, is required for authentication to a network or system. At least one additional step is also required, such as receiving a code sent via SMS to a smartphone, inserting a smart card or USB stick, or satisfying a biometric authentication requirement, such as a fingerprint scan. 
  • Password reset: In this context, it’s a feature of an ID management system that allows users to re-establish their own passwords, relieving the administrators of the job and cutting support calls. The reset application is often accessed by the user through a browser. The application asks for a secret word or a set of questions to verify the user’s identity. 
  • Privileged account management:  This term refers to managing and auditing accounts and data access based on the privileges of the user. In general terms, because of his or her job or function, a privileged user has been granted administrative access to systems. A privileged user, for example, would be able set up and delete user accounts and roles.Provisioning: The process of creating identities, defining their access privileges and adding them to an ID repository. 
  • Risk-based authentication (RBA): Risk-based authentication dynamically adjusts authentication requirements based on the user’s situation at the moment authentication is attempted. For example, when users attempt to authenticate from a geographic location or IP address not previously associated with them, those users may face additional authentication requirements. 
  • Security principal: A digital identity with one or more credentials that can be authenticated and authorized to interact with the network. 
  • Single sign-on (SSO): A type of access control for multiple related but separate systems. With a single username and password, a user can access a system or systems without using different credentials.
  • User behavior analytics (UBA): UBA technologies examine patterns of user behavior and automatically apply algorithms and analysis to detect important anomalies that may indicate potential security threats. UBA differs from other security technologies, which focus on tracking devices or security events. UBA is also sometimes grouped with entity behavior analytics and known as UEBA.  
  • IAM vendors

    The identity and access management vendor landscape is a crowded one, consisting of both pureplay providers such as Okta and OneLogin and large vendors such as IBM, Microsoft and Oracle.  Below is a list of leading players based on Gartner’s Magic Quadrant for Access Management, Worldwide, which was published in June 2017.

  • Atos (Evidan)
  • CA Technologies
  • Centrify
  • Covisint
  • ForgeRock
  • IBM Security Identity and Access Assurance
  • I-Spring Innovations
  • Micro Focus
  • Microsoft Azure Active Directory
  • Okta
  • OneLogin
  • Optimal idM
  • Oracle Identity Cloud Service
  • Ping
  • SecureAuth
  • Related video:


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    A Cloud You Can Trust | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    cloud illustration

    Illustration: QuickHoney

    Click to enlarge.

    This past April, Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud service crashed during a system upgrade, knocking customers’ websites off-line for anywhere from several hours to several days. That same month, hackers broke into the Sony PlayStation Network, exposing the personal information of 77 million people around the world. And in June a software glitch at cloud-storage provider Dropbox temporarily allowed visitors to log in to any of its 25 million customers’ accounts using any password—or none at all. As a company blogger drily noted: “This should never have happened.”

    And yet it did, and it does, with astonishing regularity. The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse has logged 175 data breaches this year in the United States alone, involving more than 13 million records.

    Such statistics should give you pause, especially if you plan to entrust information that used to exist only on your own computer to an online provider’s machines. And yet it’s very hard these days to avoid that. Whenever you update your status on Facebook, check your e-mail via Gmail, post your vacation photos on Flickr, or shop, bank, or play games online, you are relying on somebody else’s computers to safeguard your stuff. Many businesses, too, are buying into the promise of using computers they don’t own or operate, because it gives them affordable and convenient access to computing resources, storage, and networking, as well as sophisticated software and services, that they might not otherwise be able to afford.

    Regardless of how exactly they use such Internet-based computing services in “the cloud,” these businesses stand to benefit. They gain in particular from the cloud’s ability to pool equipment, allowing them to pay only for the resources they use and to scale their operations up or down almost instantaneously. Need more capacity? Just lease it from the burgeoning number of cloud providers, including Amazon, Google, Microsoft, or the company we work for, IBM. Cloud services also provide their customers with detailed metrics that track just how they use their cloud resources. And customers no longer have to wait around for the tech-support guy; their interactions with the cloud provider are almost entirely automated. So rather than being burdened with the expense and effort of procuring and maintaining an in-house computer network, even the smallest business can operate as if it had a world-class IT system.

    More and more companies are doing just that. That’s why, according to analysts at the technology-research firm Gartner, by next year 20 percent of all businesses will no longer own their own servers. That percentage is likely to grow in the coming years. In short, cloud computing is here to stay.

    But this transformation of the IT landscape brings with it some new problems stemming from the very nature of outsourcing and from sharing resources with others. These problems include service disruptions and the inability of cloud providers to accommodate customized networks. But the top concern that businesses have with cloud computing, repeated surveys have found, is security—with good reason. By moving its data and computation to the cloud, a company runs the risk that the cloud-service provider, one of the provider’s other customers, or a hacker might inappropriately gain access to sensitive or proprietary information. Customers just have to trust the cloud-service provider to safeguard their data. But unexpected things can and do happen, even when you’re dealing with well-established and presumably well-run companies. So it’s no wonder that many IT managers remain jittery. If businesses are going to reap the full benefits of cloud computing, cloud providers will need to do much more to address security concerns. Here’s an overview of how we think they could start.

    illustration, the problem with deduplication

    Illustration: QuickHoney

    The Problem With Deduplication (and How to Fix It)Click illustration to enlarge.Many cloud storage providers use a technique known as deduplication to minimize the number of unique files they store. Whenever a user tries to upload a file that has previously been stored, whether by that user or someone else, the cloud provider doesn’t upload the redundant file; instead, it creates a link between the user’s account and the existing file. The example shown here illustrates one problem with deduplication: Cloud customer Kim can surreptitiously download Joe’s stored files, thereby exploiting the cloud service for unapproved content dis- tribution. The proof-of-ownership solution, shown in steps 2.5 and 4.5, thwarts Kim’s attempt to access Joe’s files. The solution was developed by Shai Halevi and his colleagues at IBM.

    Although “cloud computing” is the current buzz phrase, the concept has been around for half a century. In 1961, the late John McCarthy, an artificial-intelligence pioneer, proposed a different term for what is essentially the same thing: utility computing. “Computing may someday be organized as a public utility, just as the telephone system is a public utility,” McCarthy said. “The computer utility could become the basis of a new and important industry.”

    But at the time, and for several decades afterward, computer hardware and software weren’t up to the task. Only in the past few years, with the advent of high-bandwidth networking, Web-based applications, and powerful and cheap server technology, has McCarthy’s vision finally been realized.

    In many ways, cloud computing is just another form of outsourcing. But traditional outsourcing arrangements—contract manufacturing, say—come with legal, organizational, and technical controls. Cloud computing hasn’t yet developed such protections. Nobody even agrees on what the best practices should be. Typical cloud-service agreements guarantee only that the provider will make its “best effort” to deliver services. Rarely do these providers pay any penalties should their services suffer an outage, breach, or failure.

    What’s more, many cloud providers do not consider security a top priority, according to a report released in April by CA Technologies and the Ponemon Institute [PDF]. The study, which surveyed 103 providers in the United States and 24 in Europe, found that the majority “do not consider computing security as one of their most important responsibilities and do not believe their products or services substantially protect and secure the confidential or sensitive information of their customers.” They also stated that it is “their customer’s responsibility to secure the cloud” and that “their systems and applications are not always evaluated for security threats prior to deployment to customers.”

    If you want a higher level of security, you may be hard-pressed to find a provider that will customize its services to satisfy your concerns. Right now, cloud providers favor one-size-fits-all services: By offering a single and fully standardized cloud service, they can maximize economies of scale and thus lower costs. The downside, however, is that the cloud services they provide meet only the most basic requirements for security. That’s fine for many of their customers, to be sure, but certainly not for all. Today’s cloud is like the Model T Ford circa 1914: You can have any color cloud you want, as long as it’s black.

    Ironically, the greatest risk in cloud computing stems from its greatest advantage: resource sharing. Let’s say you’ve developed an online game, and rather than buy your own servers, you lease computing time from a service like Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, also known as EC2. That way, if your game becomes an overnight hit, you won’t have to worry about thousands of players crashing your servers.

    To run your code, you create what are called virtual machine images on the Amazon EC2 servers. Each VMI is the software equivalent of a stand-alone computer running its own operating system. In addition to specifying the number and type of VMIs you want, you can select where you’d like each one to reside. Amazon lets you choose among six geographic regions, each having one or more data centers. You can even spread out your virtual machines within a region by putting them in different availability zones. Each VMI will then be assigned to a physical server in a data center and will remain there as long as it is active.

    Amazon promises that your virtual machines will be kept “virtually isolated” from those of other customers. But virtual isolation is not good enough. Research by Thomas Ristenpart and his colleagues at the University of California, San Diego, and MIT showed that a determined outsider stood a very good chance of putting his virtual machine onto the same server as another customer’s VMI and then launching attacks from it.

    Being located on the same server would give the attacker access to information about the target, such as cache usage and data traffic rates. And what could be done with that kind of information? Let’s say the EC2 server is running encryption for one ­customer’s VMI. To allow its CPU to run more efficiently, the server does a lot of caching; in this case, information about the encryption key might be available through the cache. And because the server cache is shared by the customers, the attacker might be able to access information about the key and thereby gain entry to the other ­customer’s encrypted data.

    More recently, Sven Bugiel and his colleagues at the Darmstadt Research Center for Advanced Security [PDF], in Germany, looked at a practice that allows Amazon cloud customers to publish their VMIs for others to use. Of the 1100 Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) the researchers looked at, about 30 percent contained private data that the creators had unintentionally ­published. These data included cryptographic keys, passwords, and security certificates, which attackers could extract and then use to gain illegal access to services that were built around the AMIs. And while both of these studies looked at Amazon’s cloud services, such vulnerabilities aren’t unique to them—they probably also exist on popular cloud services such as Microsoft’s Azure and the Rackspace Cloud.

    Data-storage clouds are also vulnerable. One class of attacks exploits a space-saving technique known as data deduplication. Many files that people upload to the cloud end up being ­duplicates—identical copies of software user manuals, say, or MP3s of Lady Gaga’s “Telephone.” Deduplication allows a data-storage cloud to keep only one copy of each file. Any time a customer attempts to upload a file, the contents of the file are first compared with other stored files. The new file is uploaded only if it doesn’t already exist in the cloud; otherwise the customer’s account is linked to the stored file.

    In a paper they presented at the Usenix Security Symposium in August, Martin Mulazzani and his colleagues at SBA Research [PDF], in Vienna, described several ways in which deduplication could be used to access files uploaded to Dropbox. One way to do this involves hash values, which are short, unique digests assigned by an algorithm to a stored file. When a customer attempts to upload a file, the Dropbox software running on his computer first calculates the hash values of the chunks of data in the file. The hash ­values are then compared with hash values already stored by Dropbox. If the file does not yet exist, it gets uploaded.

    But if customer Joe inadvertently shares the hash values for his stored files with customer Kim, or if Kim steals them from Joe, she will be able to freely download those files without Joe’s permission or even his knowledge. Mulazzani and his colleagues worked with Dropbox to plug this and other security holes they had identified before going public with them.

    Clearly, isolating customers from one another is, or should be, a major concern for cloud providers. No data from one customer should be exposed to any other, nor should one customer’s behavior affect another. With traditional outsourcing, isolation is achieved by maintaining dedicated physical infrastructure—separate production lines at a contract manufacturer, for instance—for each customer and by wiping clean all shared computers (such as workstations storing customer designs) before reuse.

    To plug known security holes, cloud providers sometimes offer add-on services. For instance, Amazon Virtual Private Cloud allows the customer to specify a set of virtual machines that may communicate only through an encrypted virtual private network. EC2 also allows its users to define security groups, which operate like firewalls to control the incoming connections to a virtual machine.

    There are a few products and services on the market aimed at enhancing cloud security. IBM’s Websphere Cast Iron and Cisco IronPort, for instance, provide secure online messaging. Informatica Corp. offers businesses a way to protect sensitive information by masking it as realistic-looking but nonsensitive data. Eventually, though, cloud security systems will need to be fully automated, so that customers can detect, analyze, and respond to their own security issues, rather than rely on the cloud provider’s staff for support and troubleshooting.

    Other cloud security offerings include e-mail scanning, which checks for malicious code embedded in messages, and identity-management services, which control users’ access to resources and automate related tasks, like resetting passwords. The trick, though, is for cloud providers to integrate the customer’s own security measures with their operations.

    That turns out to be hard to do, according to research by Burton S. Kaliski Jr. and Wayne Pauley [PDF]  of EMC Corp., in Hopkinton, Mass. They argue that the very features that define cloud computing—automated transactions, resource pooling, and so on—make traditional security assessments difficult. Indeed, they noted in a paper last year, these features offer opportunities for security breaches. For example, cloud providers continuously monitor and measure activity within their networks, to better allocate shared resources and keep their costs down. But the collection of that metering data itself opens up a security hole, say Kaliski and Pauley. A devious customer could, for example, infer behavioral patterns of other customers by analyzing her own usage.

    Despite these and other vulnerabilities, cloud customers can do quite a bit to boost their security. Businesses typically operate their in-house data networks according to the principle of least privilege, conferring to a given user only those privileges needed to do his or her job. A bank teller, for instance, doesn’t need full access to the bank’s mainframes. The same rule should apply when using a cloud service. Though that may seem obvious, many companies fail to take this simple step.

    Users can also do things to confirm the integrity of the cloud infrastructure they’re using. Amazon CloudWatch allows EC2 users to do real-time monitoring of their CPU utilization, data transfers, and disk usage. The CloudAudit working group, a volunteer effort whose members include big cloud operators like Google, Microsoft, and Rackspace, is also exploring methods for monitoring the cloud’s performance. In the future, trusted computing technology could make it possible for a customer to verify that the code running remotely in the cloud matches certain guarantees made by the cloud provider or attested to by a third-party auditor.

    Of course, the strongest protection you can give to the information you send off premises is to encrypt it. But it isn’t possible to encrypt everything: Data used in remote computations, for instance, cannot be encrypted easily.

    Is there such a thing as a totally secure cloud? No. But we, along with many other cloud-security researchers around the world, are constantly striving toward that goal.

    One such effort we are involved in aims to develop and demonstrate a secure cloud infrastructure. With funding from the European Union and others, the three-year, 10.5 million (US $14.9 million) Trustworthy Clouds, or TClouds, project is a collaboration that includes our group at IBM Research–Zurich, the security company Sirrix, the Portuguese power companies Energias de Portugal and Efacec, and San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, as well as a number of universities and other companies.

    TClouds is developing two secure cloud applications. The first will be a home health-care service that will remotely monitor, diagnose, and assist patients. Each patient’s medical file can be stored securely in the cloud and be accessible to the patient, doctors, and pharmacy staff. Because of the sensitive nature of this information—not to mention the regu­lations that apply to patient privacy—TClouds will encrypt the data. The goal is to show how in-home health care can be improved cost-efficiently without sacrificing privacy.

    The second application will be a smart street-lighting system for several Portuguese cities. Currently, the streetlights are switched on and off by means of a box that sits in a power station. The TClouds system will allow workers to log into a Web portal and type in when the lights should turn on and off in a given neighborhood; the use of smart meters will help control energy consumption. TClouds will show how such a system can run securely on a cloud provider’s computers even in the face of hacker attacks and network outages.

    TClouds will also build a “cloud of clouds” framework, to back up data and applications in case one cloud provider suffers a failure or intrusion. Recently TClouds researchers at the University of Lisbon and at IBM Research–Zurich demonstrated one such cloud of clouds architecture. It used a data­-replication protocol to store data among four commercial storage clouds—Amazon S3, Rackspace Files, Windows Azure Blob Service, and Nirvanix CDN—in such a way that the data were kept confidential and also stored efficiently.

    Although the technology is a major focus of TClouds, it is also addressing the legal, business, and social aspects of cloud computing. Many countries, for instance, have their own data‑privacy laws, which will have to be considered carefully in cases where data must cross national boundaries.

    Will everyone rush to adopt the kinds of improvements we’re working on? Probably not. What we see happening down the road, though, is the diversification of today’s one-size-fits-all approach to cloud computing. The demand for basic, low-cost cloud services will remain, but providers will also offer services with quantifiable and guaranteed security levels.

    In the future, individual clouds will most likely give way to federations of clouds. That is, businesses will use multiple cloud providers for storage, backup, archiving, computing, and so on, and those separate clouds will link their ­services. (The social-networking sites Facebook and LinkedIn are already doing this.) So even if one provider suffers an outage, customers will still enjoy continued service.

    Ultimately, we believe the cloud can be made at least as secure as any company’s own IT system. Once that happens, reaching out to a cloud provider for your computing needs will be as commonplace as getting hooked up to the gas or electric company.

    Christian Cachin and Matthias Schunter are computer scientists at IBM Research–Zurich. A cryptography expert concerned with cloud security, Cachin likes to start the day with a 5 a.m. row on Lake Zurich. Schunter, technical leader of the European Union–funded TClouds project, prefers bicycling to all other forms of transportation. Both say some of their best ideas about computer security occur when they’re in transit.



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