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Vendor IBM
Exam Number C2140-646
Exam Name Rational Manual Tester
Questions 50 Q & A
Recent Update October 17, 2018
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C2140-646 exam Dumps Source : Rational Manual Tester

Test Code : C2140-646
Test Name : Rational Manual Tester
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 50 Real Questions

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IBM IBM Rational Manual Tester

New Open source ERP Suite Written In ILE RPG | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

October 15, 2018 Alex Woodie

There’s whatever thing rather novel being delivered today at the Fall average convention in Pittsburgh: An open supply ERP package written in free-form RPG. Dubbed intERPprise, the application project is meant to harness core IBM i strengths – its integrated database and ILE environment – but primarily, deliver an illustration for what modern and native open supply utility can look like on IBM i.

The intERPrise undertaking (www.i-nterprise.org) was spearheaded through a group of IBM i advocates, including Chris Hird and Marinus van Sandwyk, who desired to exhibit what a contemporary company application would look like – and certainly, what a contemporary software might do – on the IBM i platform.

“We wanted anything that we might get the established RPG developer involved in and in fact get them to start modernizing their applications from the ground up, in its place of placing flashy front-ends over databases which are, to say the least, suspect in lots of circumstances,” says Chris Hird, the president of preserve superior solutions in Ontario, Canada. “We wanted to start from scratch and construct this as a great, solid software that truly shows the place the IBM i shines, it really is, its database and its RPG environment and ILE.”

The intERPprise undertaking at present incorporates core financial modules, including regularly occurring ledger, cashbook, bills payable, and accounts receivable. anybody can download the application, which is at the moment in alpha, and use it freely below an Apache 2 license. The undertaking founders intend for different IBM i ILE builders to build upon the base and potentially present different modules (similar to for manufacturing, and many others.) which could be also open supply or sold below a premium distribution mannequin. The undertaking may be maintained on GitHub.

The enterprise logic in the back of the product is according to the information-good judgment ERP system from Axiom programs, a South African enterprise that developed within the Synon 2E fourth-era language (4GL) environment and compiled it as RPG III code. The company common sense expressed in Axiom’s Synon models become “harvested” the usage of equipment from van Sandwyk’s TEMBO expertise Lab and re-generated as new free-kind ILE RPG objects that govern the software from in the Db2 for i database.

“all the validations are enforced by the use of triggers in the database, the entire ensuing processing is done by way off alter trigger, and all of the relationships are enforced by means of constraints,” says van Sandwyk, who is CEO and founding father of South Africa-based mostly TEMBO and a staunch advocate for adoption of the model-view-controller (MVC) architectures and, in particular, modernizing monolithic RPG code stacks by way of re-engineering it to work within Db2 i’s enforcement paradigms and to leverage its SQL query Engine, which is used by intERPrise.

“So there’s total and absolute separation between the database and a really skinny what we call orchestrator layer that some americans will discuss with as your controller, after which actually rendering JSON because the initial delivery mechanism,” van Sandwyk says. “We do not intend to guide screen data in any way shape or kind. It’s fully separation, and we’ll render a JSON payload that may also be consumed with the aid of other capabilities on different platform or an HTML net web page.”

The group is working with Healdsburg, California-primarily based e-PFR applied sciences and its IBM i-primarily based iWebSrv product to convey a graphical interface for intERPrise the usage of the JSON output.

The ILE point of intERPrise cannot be overstated, says Hird, who has criticized IBM’s open source strategy, which leans heavily on porting applications, tools, and applied sciences from Linux to run on IBM i under its AIX-based mostly PASE runtime ambiance.

“They’re doing ports to AIX and then it runs in PASE. alas there’s lots of stuff that simply doesn’t work naturally in PASE, and we’re now not taking abilities of any of the IBM i’s strengths, which is its built-in database and ILE,” Hird says. “PASE doesn’t speak very neatly to Db2. It’s not related between PASE and Db2, so any open source that you just down load for PASE is written for Linux and Linux applications frequently don’t have a Db2 database. And if it does, it tends now not to be open source as a result of IBM doesn’t ship Db2 within the open supply market.”

Hird, who developed his HA4i software in the main in the ILE C ambiance, emphasised that, by means of pushing the free-form ILE RPG good judgment into the database with intERPrise, more advantageous business consequences will emerge for the company that uses it.

“We’re pushing the business logic into the database, and announcing, ‘adequate then, we’re not going to let the rest touch that facts until it follows those constraints and people drivers, and that ability we’re no longer going to get bad records in the database,'” he says. “if you depart it in the software degree, the application developer can say, ‘ok, I’m going to push this data into the database since it can healthy. i will be able to shove binary information into a character box, and it'll store it.’ If we put constraints in, it won’t permit it to occur. it is going to say, no that doesn’t healthy our standards.”

Van Sandwyk stressed out that he has no interest in the commercial knowledge of intERPrise, and that his intention is to help the IBM i community see what up to date functions on the platform can look like. “We have not even touched the commercialization of this,” he says. “here's basically a present to the neighborhood when it comes to what we accept as true with a new native IBM i utility may still look like.”

Too many IBM i retail outlets are battling just keeping legacy code, not to mention thinking about re-architecting their programs the use of better concepts, similar to MVC and records-driven building paradigms, similar to Synon 2E, which Van Sandwyk continues turned into a long time ahead of its time.

“It come lower back to ancient dialogue – why the heck would I buy a Rolls Royce and pressure it around like a scotch cart,” van Sandwyk says, the usage of a South African time period for a wheelbarrow. “We believe so an awful lot in the platform, let’s leverage its inherent strengths, because we be aware of that we are able to carry business transaction processing at a fraction of the charge different structures can do, with a degree of safety and a level of integration that the other structures can most effective dream about.”

The plan calls for intERPrise to growth from alpha to beta code over the subsequent six month, and emerge as a frequently accessible product next spring, in time for general’s POWERUp conference in Anaheim, California. The code remains somewhat pliable in the intervening time, and the structure could exchange between now after which, which is why assignment supporters want to get the input of other IBM i builders and designers.

what will no longer alternate, youngsters, is the determination to exhibit the IBM i world what a contemporary and native IBM i software can do.

“We’re trying to get a grassroots movement to claim, this is how it should be written,” Hird says. “The incontrovertible fact that it’s open source potential that you may take it and you can follow that same pattern to your personal development.”

showing ILE builders – most of whom code in RPG – that an open source task IBM i doesn’t ought to imply falling down the PASE rabbit gap is one other purpose.

“We’re attempting to give to a lot of people who know RPG and nothing else the capacity to build anything particular from the floor up,” Hird says. “here is just the birth. here's the alpha unlock, which is just going to be the core in it. we are able to boost that extra before the standard release at regular next yr, nevertheless it all depends upon what individuals need to see, and what you need to do.”

linked reports

extra Transparency necessary For Open supply running on IBM i

Native Open supply: Why It’s Time for IBM i


carrier Stubbing With JMeter and Docker | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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carrier Stubbing for performance trying out: An Introduction

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  • A legacy gadget no longer littered with current construction
  • a third birthday celebration service that belongs to a further corporation
  • A system developed by your company with an doubtful roadmap
  • The presence of dependency programs brings every guide or automatic trying out assignment in a condition just like the one described within the photograph beneath.

  • testing Actors - within the diagram i'm showing a checking out task that stress assessments the gadget below examine to validate its pleasant in other ways, each manually and with automation.
  • gadget beneath look at various (SUT) - a posh structure composed of heterogeneous capabilities and infrastructure that implement a business requirement.
  • additional systems - these capabilities collaborate with the remaining software but are out of the venture administration scope. perhaps, some of their requirements are doubtful. These are the dependencies.
  • within the picture above it is important to center of attention on the arrows too. These arrows describe the programs' perimeters and the interfaces used to trade messages/guidance:

  • The crimson arrow symbolizes the test specification this is run in the trying out device (JMeter during this case).
  • The gray arrow symbolizes that there is a relationship of performance that the tester is aware of little about. This may doubtlessly waste your time, in case you keep in mind too late that dependencies broke your check good judgment. So, plan in strengthen, discover concerning the dependencies, stub them, develop your plan and proceed with the examine.
  • The presence of dependency techniques can produce a sequence of unpleasant consequences during the testing venture (both for guide and automatic trying out):

  • Fragility - the test turns into greater fragile with the expanding number of uncontrolled dependencies, because you may get a failed test when the issue is with the dependency and not the SUT, rendering the look at various unreliable.
  • Instability - dependencies can convey the gadget down when the SUT is up, affecting the check result devoid of a transparent correlation to the SUT.
  • Time drinking - constructing check data may additionally take days/weeks and it's potentially error-susceptible.
  • Unavailability - the trying out team may also spend time anticipating the supply of dependencies programs.
  • Frustration - the human factor of the be counted:
  • Testers - you may suppose frustrated because you cannot do your job conveniently
  • Managers - you may feel annoyed as a result of your group wastes time as a result of its work is blocked
  • To eliminate, or highly in the reduction of, these results, one solution is to decouple the check method accomplished on the SUT from the uncontrolled dependencies. one way to decouple is adopting stubbed interfaces, with the intention of replicating the behaviour of dependencies. in this method, the trying out system does not encounter unpredictable behaviour as it would with the customary dependencies gadget. thus, the examine perimeter will now include the stub features because they're a part of trying out method. So, we can add a brand new endpoint to the checking out perimeter in our diagram.

    To create stubbed interfaces in out test plan we should:

  • Add a brand new gadget referred to as a stub service that replicates the interface to be stubbed
  • define which calls should be stubbed in accordance with the planned look at various system
  • take into account that the stub is part of the test suite and is protected in the test perimeter
  • within the graphic above I introduced a new entity, a stub provider, into the testing perimeter. The stub provider acts like the usual dependency when queried, most effective it solutions with certain messages coherent to the checking out scopes. A stub can reproduce both practical qualities, as well as non-purposeful features, such as response instances or slow connections.

    Let's take into account the circulate of the message/counsel exchange:

  • The red arrow has an analogous feature to the previous photo with a little change: the testing group has produced a precondition with the stub and the SUT
  • The green arrow - is the stubbed interface that reproduces a subset of all possible requests/responses from the precise dependencies equipment. How do you come to a decision which requests/responses you should definitely stub? This depends on two factors:
  • checking out coverage - the checking out crew ought to assure the nice of the SUT. This purpose is performed by means of check insurance. more look at various insurance requires greater advanced stubbing.
  • Stub setup effort - The checking out team is liable for setting up stubbed interfaces and keeping them. So, elements must be allocated as a result. here is crucial to be aware as a result of some stubs may also be complicated to maintain and the hassle can become hugely unexpected in comparison to the usual trying out plan.
  • Concluding this part: stubbing can be the key to the success of a posh trying out undertaking.

    Virtualization as a Shortcut for service Stubbing

    constructing a stub carrier require colossal planning and implementation efforts. every so often, project individuals undertake short and dirty options to speed up the software lifecycle activities. They assume they'll need a brief period of stub utilization (e.g. setting up one feature, checking out one characteristic). a short and dirty answer is desirable nonetheless it tends to:

  • Have a brief lifecycle with none assure of reproducibility over time.
  • Be used by means of just one ambiance, usually the one where it is developed.
  • fundamental stub options are according to difficult coded and/or parameterized facts. There are more complicated stub services, in response to a knowledge model solution. A setup of stub services turns into greater complicated and sometimes requires relevant working towards, however acquiring stubbed capabilities is extra counseled for a task with a wider ambition.

    listed here, we will describe how to enforce a stub carrier the use of a virtualization carrier. acquiring a virtual stub service provides stub isolation from the rest of the ambiance. in addition, a digital stub provider allows for migrating the stub service over networks in instances when:

  • Departments require sharing stubs so one can collaborate and work with the same references during subsystem development.
  • it be required to enhance the stub carrier infrastructure (e.g. computational load and bandwidth) all the way through trying out (e.g. efficiency checking out).
  • The digital stub carrier can also be created the usage of a virtualization layer. we will use a virtualization in line with Docker, as a result of Docker makes it possible to execute a stub in an remoted context that reproduces most effective the necessary elements.

    Docker-primarily based Stub features

    Docker presents the probability to setup a stub provider effectively and with a high degree of reliability. As we described in previous articles, the possibility to reproduce in the past configured behaviour is reasonably instantaneous in Docker. in addition, the virtualization layer creates an isolation that executes the stubbed interfaces as an external service.

    Now it's time for some examples that allows you to teach us the way to do it. i will be able to existing two containers, and a stub selected service interface for every one. The proposed examples are my very own: they use self assigned requirements with none correlation to a industrial situation.

    SUT: massive records, Stub: data supply based on S3 (instance 1)

    in this example, we are required to deploy a stub for a data supply according to an S3 bucket that generates continuous records. This facts can be characterised based on pace, diversity, and volume. a potential SUT target for this stub is a big facts software.

    Our examine requirements for this example stub are:

  • The stub generates the defined kB dimension of random chars as a S3 object
  • The stub uploads a brand new S3 object periodically
  • The stub sends the generated S3 object to assigned bucket
  • through analyzing these necessities we are able to extract parameters that we add to the stub implementation to customize our stub conduct at boot time:

  • kbSize - the kB size of each object generated
  • sheetAtMinute - the indication of what number of objects are uploaded each and every time
  • bucket - describes the target bucket identify
  • With the described interface parameters and the expected output behaviour, we can proceed with the stub architecture definition. we can undertake Docker as stub useful resource supervisor and break up our stub into three sub-methods:

  • A Minio server container to show the S3 interface to the SUT
  • A JMeter container that runs in non-GUI mode to generate a data stream
  • A network configured by the use of Docker so containers can speak and the SUT can see the bucket externally.
  • The final stub design is offered within the photograph above. This design assumes that the stub is queried by means of the trying out technique to examine trying out dreams (e.g. assess a document file within the bucket).

    Stub Code

    As all the time, right here is the code of the described software. which you can also discover it on GitHub. For this stub see the illustration code found in the "s3-stub" folder.

    $DO_TOKEN="your-digitalocean-token" $MACHINE_NAME="my-computer" docker-computer create ` --driver=digitalocean ` --digitalocean-access-token=$DO_TOKEN ` --digitalocean-dimension=1gb ` --digitalocean-location=ams3 ` --digitalocean-inner most-networking=actual ` --digitalocean-photograph=ubuntu-sixteen-04-x64 ` $MACHINE_NAME $MACHINE_IP = ((docker-laptop ip $MACHINE_NAME) | Out-String).trim() & docker-laptop env $MACHINE_NAME --shell powershell | Invoke-Expression

    This PowerShell code creates a Docker machine whereas deliberating hardware necessities and the desktop area (this can also be one other requirement for our stub). within the conclusion, the code extracts the real computing device IP handle and configures its latest shell to execute the subsequent Docker command on the newly created Docker laptop.

    Please observe: carrier stubbing frequently requires simulating a service determined over a network (e.g. local community, corporate network, international), so we have to be prepared for a condition the place the stub location can also be "rented" on the Cloud.

    $SUB_NET="172.18.0.0/sixteen" $STUB_NET="mydummynet" docker community create ` --subnet=$SUB_NET $STUB_NET

    This code creates a customized Docker network the place the containers our stub is composed of should be positioned. Please be aware: the whole network and the related containers are invoked on the local machine, but accomplished on a far off computer because of the "env" command.

    $accessKey="AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE" $secretKey="wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY" docker quantity create s3data docker volume create s3conf docker run ` -p 9000:9000 ` --detach ` --identify minio ` --env "MINIO_ACCESS_KEY=$accessKey" ` --env "MINIO_SECRET_KEY=$secretKey" ` --internet $STUB_NET ` -v s3data:/facts ` -v s3conf:/root/.minio ` minio/minio server /data

    This code units up a Minio server container, which takes the role of the S3 interface for our stub. The code steps are carried out in the following order:

  • Defining access/secret keys as required to have interaction with the S3 bucket.
  • growing two Docker volumes that backup the Minio server configuration and the records, in case of a container crash. it's helpful to publish crash analyses.
  • creating a container in indifferent mode with the defined configuration.
  • $MACHINE_KEY="$env:HOMEPATH/.docker/computer/machines/$MACHINE_NAME/id_rsa" # this command gives crucial jar for Minio scp -o StrictHostKeyChecking=accept-new ` -i $MACHINE_KEY ` ../../minio-4.0.2-all.jar root@$MACHINE_IP:~ scp -o StrictHostKeyChecking=settle for-new ` -i $MACHINE_KEY ` ./script.jmx root@$MACHINE_IP:~ docker run ` --detach ` --identify jmeter ` --env "JMETER_USER_CLASSPATH=/root/" ` --env "MINIO_ACCESS_KEY=$accessKey" ` --env "MINIO_SECRET_KEY=$secretKey" ` --extent /root/:/root/ ` --net $STUB_NET ` vmarrazzo/jmeter ` -n -t /root/script.jmx

    within the ultimate a part of the PowerShell code, we launch a JMeter container in detached mode. This container executes the logic of periodically uploading a brand new S3 object to the bucket. before container execution it be quintessential to upload here on the Docker computer by the use of the scp command:

  • minio-four.0.2-all.jar - a quintessential library for executing Groovy code in a JMeter script
  • script.jmx - the JMeter script with the stub good judgment (e.g. scheduling and object introduction)
  • The photo above suggests the check plan constitution of the JMeter script used for stub. This script

  • Takes stub arguments from the Docker run command.
  • Establishes a connection with the Minio server by way of its Java API.
  • Periodically iterates the technology of a random S3 object and its upload on an outlined bucket.
  • For implementation particulars, see the Groovy code committed on GitHub. When stub containers are running, it is viable to navigate over the bucket via the net through the use of the Docker computing device IP tackle at port 9000.

    which you can now create your JMeter script for load testing the software.

    SUT: application, Stub: IBM MQ Endpoint (example 2)

    This illustration covers messaging-oriented middleware by using displaying a way to stub an IBM MQ primarily based application. the important thing features that symbolize this middleware are asynchronicity, routing, and transformation. purposes like IBM MQ are enormously adopted where it is obligatory to facilitate message change with a standard API.

    The ultimate stub can simulate a far flung endpoint that the SUT on occasion queries throughout the examine undertaking. This circumstance creates a sophisticated examine and stubbing will also be a pretty good solution in a reasonable period of time.

    As already considered in the old illustration, we have verify necessities that outline how the stub works:

  • IBM MQ edition and its configuration
  • pattern message request obtained by means of the SUT
  • sample message response to be despatched to the SUT
  • inspecting these necessities, we deserve to contain additional colleagues to unravel the competencies hole fundamental to setup our stub. In particular:

  • sysadmin - to identify the software version and its configuration (e.g. TLS config)
  • developer - to attain a sample edition of messages, like these:
  • Image title

    After an inquiry session and a series of "elementary, my expensive Watson" we will adopt a stub structure that has three subsystems (once again):

  • IBM MQ container to expose MQ interfaces to SUT
  • purchaser/Producer request/response logic into advert hoc container in keeping with custom Java code
  • community configured by way of Docker, so the containers can talk and the SUT can see the bucket externally
  • The final stub design is introduced within the photograph above. This design assumes that the stub is probably queried by way of the testing method to check the trying out goals (e.g. verify queue stats).

    Stub Code

    before describing the code it's necessary to deliver a technical description of the stub and its containers. In element:

  • IBM MQ container is in keeping with the image "vmarrazzo/wmq" already viewed in the old article. it is an IBM MQ V9 with two queue managers that differ to channel encryption with/devoid of TLS safety. during this illustration we believe that the SUT communicates with TLS security and we've the encryption key.
  • The "java-stub" is a customized project developed in Java, which interacts IBM MQ to the stubs anticipated MQ habits. This challenge makes use of Apache Maven as a build toolchain so it is advantageous to reuse Maven for our Docker container. The Maven photo is positive for executing Maven goals within the isolated ambiance according to the Docker container.
  • here is the code of the described software. The code described in this paper is attainable on GitHub. For this stub see the illustration code determined within the folder "ibmmq-stub".

    $MACHINE_KEY="$env:HOMEPATH/.docker/computing device/machines/$MACHINE_NAME/id_rsa" # this command uploads integral TLS for IBM MQ scp -o StrictHostKeyChecking=accept-new ` -i $MACHINE_KEY ` ./my-cert.pfx root@$MACHINE_IP:~ # this command uploads necessary TLS for Java Stub scp -o StrictHostKeyChecking=accept-new ` -i $MACHINE_KEY ` ./my-cert.jks root@$MACHINE_IP:~ # this command uploads Java Stub source code scp -o StrictHostKeyChecking=settle for-new ` -i $MACHINE_KEY ` -r ./java-stub root@$MACHINE_IP:~ $destPath="~/java-stub/localrepository/com/ibm/com.ibm.mq.allclient/9.0.4.0" # this command offers jar for IBM MQ scp -o StrictHostKeyChecking=accept-new ` -i $MACHINE_KEY ` <your_path>/com.ibm.mq.allclient-9.0.four.0.jar ` root@$MACHINE_IP: $destPath

    The above code is a compulsory precondition for container execution and it includes:

  • A keystore in PKCS #12 archive format (pfx) for a TLS channel on IBM MQ
  • Java keystore (jks) required by means of Java stub to address IBM MQ messages
  • The "java-stub" source code mission that implements stub logic
  • The Java driver for the IBM MQ required by means of "java-stub" code
  • $QM_VOLUME_NAME="qm1data" $ks_file="my-cert.pfx" $ks_pass="changeit" docker extent create $QM_VOLUME_NAME docker run ` --env MQ_TLS_KEYSTORE=/var/ks/$ks_file ` --env MQ_TLS_PASSPHRASE=$ks_pass ` --publish 1415:1415 ` --post 9443:9443 ` --identify wmq ` --detach ` --internet $STUB_NET ` --volume $QM_VOLUME_NAME:/mnt/mqm ` --quantity /root/:/var/ks ` vmarrazzo/wmq

    This code section is reasonably comparable to the one already considered in IBM MQ in the old Docker article. So after this Docker runs the command, a container is run with an IBM MQ illustration internal with a TLS channel on the 1415 socket.

    docker volume create --name maven-repo docker run ` -it --rm ` --internet $STUB_NET ` -v /root/:/choose/maven ` -v maven-repo:/root/.m2 ` -w /decide/maven ` maven:3.5-jdk-10 ` mvn clean bring together exec:java -DIBMMQ_HOST=wmq

    this is the remaining PowerShell part and it's involving the execution of a Maven container. This Docker runs a command that executes the stub main type by using a undertaking file descriptor known as a pom file. in addition:

  • The container is achieved in a created network where IBM MQ is operating
  • The container receives the IBM MQ container identify as enter, so the Docker network resolves this identify with the IP handle container
  • After the execution of Docker run instructions, the resulting stub is able to be engaged by means of the SUT by producing the following actions:

  • Listening for incoming messages on the IBM MQ queue to be parsed
  • After accurately receiving the message, it generates the reply message using the information carried to the request message.
  • in response to this present article and a old one, the reader can implement a load script to test the remaining stub conduct.

    Conclusion

    in this article, I showed one other way to make use of Docker in a performance challenge, by using service stubbing in keeping with Docker virtualization. I additionally described examples that used quite a few Docker containers we began working with in previous articles. These obtained stub services exhibit container flexibility in diverse contexts (e.g. Maven container is for establishing aim).

    After constructing your device, you could run performance exams on it with BlazeMeter. Create your JMeter script, scale it in BlazeMeter, share your exams with colleagues and bosses, and analyze effects.

    To are trying out BlazeMeter, request a live demo from one among our efficiency engineers.


    The rings industry Prepares For supply Chain trace-means | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Blockchain know-how Makes it possible to connect entire supply Chains and Create TransparencyDeposit pictures

    Blockchain know-how is coming to the jewelry industry, and it’s coming quickly. finally, this skill absolute hint-capability of each aspect within the rings deliver chain; from the mine, to the refinery, to the alloy company, to the construction company, the retailer, and on to the consumer. but we’re still years from that degree of provide chain cooperation. You may also have heard of blockchain technology as the know-how behind web currencies like Bitcoin. however blockchain will also be used to tune any digital or actual good from one vicinity to an extra, as long as the entire contributors within the chain-of-custody have entry to a blockchain platform, and reliably enter their transactions into it. This classification of deliver chain transparency will go a long way to reassuring buyers concerned in regards to the rings business's have an impact on on the world, and should be an important reduction to jewelry corporations everywhere that are struggling to purchase and manufacture responsibly. 

    So how does it work? in case you’ve ever watched a police procedural television demonstrate, you’ve considered how evidence is passed from hand-to-hand, cautiously recording every person who touches it alongside the style. evidence is bagged, tagged, and signed off on at each and every step, to preserve the integrity of the evidence from collection to trial.

    That’s what blockchain does. It tracks raw substances – like gold or diamonds — from the mine, to the refiner (for metals) or gem cutter, via distributors and manufacturers, to the retailer, and on to the consumer. only, in its place of keeping a paper log, the raw fabric is assigned a serial number, and statistics is entered into the supply log, or digital ledger, as it moves from place to vicinity, all over the cloth’s transformation. Blockchain programs can not be edited and they're extremely at ease, so the information it truly is entered for every step of the manner is everlasting.

    Having a tough time picturing this? Let's stroll through one feasible scenario. think about a bucket stuffed with lumps of gold, freshly dug out of the ground. The household* that works this piece of floor has been certified; they’re not the usage of infant labor, and they're wholly knowledgeable in and practicing safe and environmentally sound practices. *(Tens of millions of artisanal miners make up most mining operations world wide.)

    That bucket of gold is bagged, sealed, and assigned a serial quantity. The person managing this method signs into a blockchain software on her smartphone, and logs the batch. After this step, the uncooked gold moves on to the subsequent stage within the supply chain.

    things get a little more challenging at the next step. The gold strikes along to a refinery, which usually refines huge a lot of gold from dozens of sources in each batch. Now, the serialized raw gold must be sophisticated as an remoted batch, to preserve visibility to its factor of origin. The refiner logs into his business computer gadget, which communicates with the blockchain platform, and identifies the batch before and after refining. The sophisticated steel is repackaged, together with the normal serial quantity. Then it strikes on to a creation facility.

    Let’s say that construction facility is making wire. The subtle gold stays together as a serialized batch. When the creation manager takes possession of the subtle gold, he uses his tablet to enter the batch tips into his enterprise computer equipment — which communicates with the blockchain platform. Now imagine the conclusion of this process: tremendous coils of vivid gold wire sitting on a pallet. each coil’s tag contains a bar code that reaches lower back to the long-established serial quantity, and the computing device system communicates with the blockchain app that the subtle gold has been changed into wire.

    The wire coils are shipped off to producers and distributors, who enter the serial numbers into their laptop systems as a part of the inventory receiving procedure. Many distributors don’t promote total coils of wire – they promote the wire in various lengths to smaller producers. each order of wire they ship is accompanied by the serial number of the batch – which become kept in their ERP device and instantly communicated with the blockchain platform. The bar code that prints on the product tag, bill, and packing slip incorporates the digital links to the usual raw gold.

    rings producers enter the serial variety of each size of wire into their own stock receiving programs – which transmit logs to the blockchain platform. They radically change the wire into complete jewelry. once they produce each last earrings merchandise, they log the serial variety of the gold that went into it – along with the serial numbers of another metals or gemstones that were used.  The consumer who buys the piece can be guaranteed about the provenance of the substances that had been tracked in the course of the blockchain, and may even be trained about the origins of every aspect.

    rings trade Initiatives

    Blockchain know-how is entirely developed and is in use — here is not science fiction. The challenge should be enlisting give chain operations – lots of which can be nevertheless very manual. provide chain partners need to have the will to standardize techniques and to jot down procedures for their laptop techniques to transmit significant facts to the blockchain systems.

    Two big blockchain initiatives are taking up these challenges for the jewelry trade. De Beers announced in may of 2018, “An immutable and cozy digital trail changed into created for a selection of tough diamonds mined through De Beers as they moved from the mine to cutter and polisher, then via to a jeweler.” The blockchain platform De Beers has committed to is Tracr, which De Beers developed with Boston Consulting neighborhood’s Digital Ventures, the usage of the Ethereum blockchain framework. Their preliminary verify changed into on a hundred bigger diamonds (most diamonds traded on this planet are melee, that are diamonds between .001 to .15 carats and between .6mm to 3.5mm in diameter). De Beers owns or controls most of its deliver chain, making compliance during this early check highly easy to obtain. increasing the initiative to smaller diamonds and different give companions may be a bigger problem. De Beers has stated that their platform could be made available to the relaxation of the diamond industry by the conclusion of 2018.

    one more rings blockchain initiative, led by Richline community, Inc., is the usage of IBM’s TrustChain platform (which is developed on the Hyperledger fabric blockchain framework). Walmart partnered with IBM in 2016 to use TrustChain to protect the protection and safety of meals substances, making it viable for them to promptly hint the foundation of meals products when meals protection considerations arise. Berkshire Hathaway’s meals distribution company, McLane company, changed into probably the most companions concerned in the Walmart effort. When Richline, the earrings manufacturing and distribution business owned through Berkshire Hathaway, entered the blockchain enviornment, they also chose IBM’s TrustChain.

    in response to the Trustchain site, “here's a different collaboration that leverages IBM’s expertise and the UL, independent third-birthday celebration verification, along with 5 diamond and jewelry agencies that symbolize the entire provide chain: Rio Tinto Diamonds (diamond supplier for Proof of conception best), Leach Garner (valuable metals business enterprise), Asahi Refinery (valuable metal refinery), Helzberg (US rings retailer) and the Richline community (international jewelry brand).” The TrustChain initiative is meant to encompass the total range of rings substances, from gemstones to metals.

    a captivating aspect of the TrustChain initiative is the inclusion of Underwriter Labs (UL). UL has an extended background as an independent (3rd birthday celebration) verifier of deliver chains. This adds one more layer of confidence to the TrustChain platform. just like the Tracr initiative, the TrustChain initiative plans to welcome “all responsible earrings companies, suppliers, and sellers” in 2019.

    both the Tracr and TrustChain initiatives are being developed by their sponsoring businesses on behalf of the rings business. There could be no costs to join both system, even though all blockchains require minimal transaction expenses for the networks to function. individual organizations may be chargeable for updating their procedures and writing their gadget integrations to the blockchain platform. each structures can easily speak with up to date ERP and stock-tracing methods, and may seemingly introduce integration “layers” for jewelry provide chain companions to tap into.

    both Tracr and TrustChain have additionally put privateness controls in area all through their systems. This potential that corporations can participate within the platform devoid of exposing delicate statistics like pricing. Traceability, and never full transparency, is the purpose of those programs.

    the place will we Go From here?

    As De Beers and Richline neighborhood have without doubt found with the aid of now, blockchain technology is simply part of the traceability battle. to ensure that supply chains to share traceable data, each enterprise alongside the chain must have developed repeatable, uniform strategies and must manage those procedures with self-discipline and consistency. This type of method handle is the exception, now not the rule of thumb, which explains that important organisations like Walmart and McDonalds own massive percentages of their supply chains — appropriate all the way down to the farm. it is less difficult to wrangle a wholly-owned vertical supply chain into compliance than to get small, less sophisticated corporations to apply the disciplines crucial for traceability.

    The international jewelry business has far more cottage corporations than refined company gamers. however as patrons exhibit transforming into concern for the origins of all issues – from apples to diamonds – the industry have to be prepared to present traceability as an option. And groups that tap into consumer demand for product confidence will discover a wealth of differentiation opportunity as a reward for his or her efforts.




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    Can Rational Arguments Actually Change People's Minds? | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Are we, the human species, unreasonable? Do rational arguments have any power to sway us, or is it all intuition, hidden motivations, and various other forms of prejudice? The answer isn't simple, but we may not be irrational creatures after all.

    This post originally appeared on Contributoria.

    The question has been hanging over me because of my profession. I work as a cognitive psychologist, researching and teaching how people think. My job is based on rational inquiry, yet the picture of human rationality painted by our profession can seem pretty bleak. Every week I hear about a new piece of research which shows up some quirk of our minds, like the one about people given a heavy clip board judge public issues as more important than people given a light clip board. Or that more attractive people are judged as more trustworthy, or they arguments they give as more intelligent.

    Commentators and popularizers of this work have been quick to pick up on these findings. Dan Ariely has a book calling us Predictably Irrational, and the introduction tells us "we are pawns in a game whose forces we largely fail to comprehend. We usually think of ourselves [with] ultimate control over the decisions we make [but] this perception has more to do with our desires... than reality." Cordelia Fine's book A Mind of Its Own has the subtitle "how your brain distorts and deceives," whilst David McRaney doesn't pull any punches with the title of his You Are Not So Smart.

    The wider context is the recent progress in the sciences that puts our species in the biological context of the animals, a project that most psychologists are signed up to, to some degree. A reflection of this is all the experiments which attempt to give a mechanistic —that is natural—account of the mind, an account which downplays idiosyncrasy, subjectivity, and non-determinism. The philosopher John Gray was reflecting on this trend in research, as well as giving vent to his own enthusiastic pessimism, when he wrote:

    We think our actions express our decisions. But in nearly all of our life, willing decides nothing. We cannot wake up or fall asleep, remember or forget our dreams, summon or banish our thoughts, by deciding to do so. When we greet someone on the street we just act, and there is no actor standing behind what we do. Our acts are end points in long sequences of unconscious responses. They arise from a structure of habits and skills that is almost infinitely complicated. Most of our life is enacted without conscious awareness.

    The science, and those who promote it, seem to be saying that we're unreasonable creatures. That's a problem, given that many of our social institutions (such as democracy) are based on an assumption that rational persuasion can occur. If I believed the story told in these books I would be forced to choose between my profession as a cognitive scientist and political commitment as a citizen and democrat.

    Fortunately, as a cognitive scientist, I don't have to believe what I'm told about human nature—I can look into it myself. So I set out to get to the bottom of the evidence on how we respond to rational arguments. Does rationality lose out every time to irrational motivations? Or is there any hope to those of us who want to persuade because we have good arguments, not because we are handsome, or popular, or offer heavy clipboards.

    Persuasion and Arguments

    One of the most famous examples of the way our minds twist arguments is an experiment performed by Charles Lord, Lee Ross, and Mark Lepper way back in 1979. These American social psychologists recruited participants who had views for or against the death penalty. They then presented them with reports of studies which seemed to support or oppose the death penalty. Here's a pro-death penalty example:

    Kroner and Phillips (1977) compared murder rates for the year before and the year after adoption of capital punishment in 14 states.

    In 11 of the 14 states, murder rates were lower after adoption of the death penalty.

    This research supports the deterrent effect of the death penalty.

    Lord and colleagues found that people didn't change their minds in the direction of the arguments presented to them—far from it. Rather, people who had pro-death penalty views found flaws and biases in the anti-death penalty studies, and vice versa. The participants in the experiment ended up with more extreme views than they started with—the pro- people becoming more pro and the anti- becoming more anti. This "biased assimilation effect," whereby we only believe evidence that fits with what we already believe, is no historical artifact. Adam Corner and colleagues from the University of Cardiff showed in 2012 that this bias holds for a very contemporary topic—climate change. People who were more skeptical about climate change rated editorials supporting the reality and importance of climate change as less persuasive and reliable than those people who were less skeptical.

    At first glance, evidence like this looks like a triumph for the "we're all irrational" team. And don't be tempted to dismiss this as evidence that the people in the experiment are bad thinkers or somehow not qualified think about the topic. Another recent study showed that the more scientific education a climate skeptic had, the stronger their skepticism was likely to be.

    But I want to persuade you that this is evidence of the power of reason, not unreason. Psychologists perform their interventions on participants who are far from a blank slate—they are all adults, usually University educated (our great weakness is performing most psychology experiments on psychology students), all probably having spent years developing their opinions about the world. It is not really surprising that their views can't be dislodged with a few choice anecdotes. Who'd want opinions if they were shifted by the slightest counter-argument. That's not rationality.

    To really look at the power of reason, we need to look at the effect of strong rather than weak arguments. Unfortunately, as two leading researchers wrote in a 1998 review, "relatively little is known about what makes an argument persuasive."

    Two decades earlier, one of the authors of this report, Richard Petty, had been involved in a piece of research which showed an important qualification you need to take account of if you want to measure how persuasive good arguments can be. Along with John Cacioppo, Petty ran an experiment looking at how involvement in an issue affected the power of arguments to persuade. The experimenters tried to persuade undergraduates at the University of Missouri that University regulations should be changed so that all students would have to pass an additional comprehensive exam before being allowed to graduate. Previous work had revealed that such a change was "strongly counter-attitudinal for most college students." That's psychology code for "they hated the idea." Cacioppo and Petty varied the kinds of arguments they used on their volunteers. Half received strong arguments in favor of the change, and half weak arguments—arguments that had obvious flaws or simple counter-arguments. A second factor was manipulated: how involved people felt in the argument. Half the volunteers were told that this change was under consideration for the University of Missouri. In other words, that it would affect them, possibly requiring them to pass an extra exam or flunk their degree. The other half were told that the change was being considered at North Carolina State University (approximately 1000 miles away).

    The results show that when people have low involvement in an argument, neither the strong or weak arguments were persuasive. People's minds were made up, and no argument shifted them. But in the high involvement condition both the strong and weak arguments had a significant effect. Weak arguments entrenched people's positions—they shifted their attitude to be more against the final exam. Strong arguments, however, had the effect you might expect from reasonable people; they shifted their attitudes to be less against the final exam idea (it still wasn't very popular, but it was less unpopular).

    This research, and research that followed on from it, showed that strong arguments can be persuasive, but only when people are motivated to deliberate on the issue. Recently, a team led by Joseph Paxton of Harvard University showed that, in the domain of moral arguments, strong arguments were only persuasive if people were given some deliberation time before being forced to answer. Like crimes, it seems, reasoning requires both motive and opportunity, but if both are there even in crude psychology experiments we can show that strong arguments persuade.

    Truth Wins

    The strongest evidence on the power of argument comes from domains where there is a right answer. For public issues like the death penalty, or moral arguments, it will never be clear what the right answer is. Because of this, one person's strong argument won't be the same as another's. In logic or mathematics, however, because a correct answer can be defined precisely, so can strong arguments.

    For a long time, Psychologists have used a logic task called the Wason Selection Task as a lens on our power of reasoning. The task works like this: imagine there are cards which always have a letter on one side and a number on the other. You are shown, flat on the table, four cards. Their up-facing sides show E, G, 7, and 6, and you are told that you need to test this rule: "All cards with a vowel on one side have an even number on the other side." Which cards do you need to turn over to test if this rule is true?

    In experiments using this task, over 80% of people test the rule by picking the cards showing "E" and "6" and they are wrong. The result is often held up as an example of the weakness of our powers of logic, showing how unsuited our minds are to formal reasoning.

    The correct answer is that you need to turn over the "E" and the "7" cards. If the "E" card doesn't have an even number on the other side, the rule is false: a vowel did not lead to an even number. Similarly, if the "7" card has a vowel on the other side, the rule has also been shown to be false: a vowel led to a non-even number. Turning over the "6" card doesn't tell you anything, since the rule doesn't say anything about what even numbers cards ought to have on the other side (i.e. it doesn't say that non-vowels can't lead to even numbers too).

    But what is often held up as a testimony to our irrationality can also be a laboratory for examining our rationality. Whilst the selection task is normally completed by individuals, you can also ask small groups to try and solve the task. When you do this, two remarkable things happen. Firstly, the success rate jumps massively so that most groups solve the task correctly (75% or more, compared to a success rate of less than 10% for individuals). Secondly, we can observe the process of discussion that generates the correct solutions, enabling us to discern something powerful and encouraging about group reasoning.

    Transcripts of groups reasoning about the selection task show that in the process of discussion groups manage to construct arguments in favor of the correct answer, i.e. the answer that is in line with the logic of hypothesis testing. Other work on group reasoning, this time using mathematical problems, has shown that often it is enough for a single member of group to realize the correct answer for the group to submit this as their final decision. This "Truth Wins" scenario is in total contrast to what psychologists will normally tell you about group function. In most domains, from creativity to tug-of-war, a phenomenon called "social loafing" holds, whereby the performance of the group is less than the sum of expected effect of individuals acting alone.

    This encouraging story about the power of reason needs to be put in the context of the research on persuasion. The groups in these experiments have a common goal and, we must assume, trust each other and are committed to the task. Furthermore the solutions can be demonstrated to be correct. In these circumstances rational argument is productive.

    Prove Me Wrong

    Another result that comes from analyzing transcripts of the these types of experiments is that people are only persuaded when they can be shown that the answer they are currently advocating is wrong. Insight into how to do this comes from experiments on the so-called "Illusion of Explanatory Depth." The illusion concerns our beliefs about how well we understand complex systems—ranging from the forces driving global terrorism to how a flush toilet works. The original research which framed the phenomenon asked people to self-rate their understanding of how things work. Examples for this experiment were taken from the classic children's book The Way Things Work. The volunteers were asked to rate how well they understood things like "How a speedometer works," "How a helicopter flies" or "How a cylinder lock opens with a key." After they give these ratings, the participants were asked to write out a full explanation of how the items worked. They then answered test questions about their understanding. They then rated their original understanding again. After the trying to provide explanations, participant's ratings of understanding dropped. After the test questions they dropped even further, revealing that most people have a far less confident understanding of these things than they initially believe.

    There is a lesson here for all of us about over confidence. The authors of the study, Leonid Rozenblit and Frank Keil from Yale University, ascribe the effect to the ease with which we interact with these systems, allowing us to directly appreciate their effects (e.g. we make the car go faster, and the speedometer shows the new speed). We, they argue, then mistake this sampling of the environment for our own knowledge. Without the working system in front of us, we're actually pretty ignorant of its internal operation.

    But for me the interesting lesson is that the study participants came to realize they were wrong in their original assessments. Although full of confidence initially, they moved to re-rating their understanding as dramatically lower—they were, in other words, persuaded to change their minds about something (in this case, about how much they knew). How did this happen?

    Follow up work published last year confirms that asking people to provide mechanistic explanations can play a vital role in persuading them they are mistaken. Philip Fernbach, of the University of Colorado, and colleagues asked participants in an experiment to provide opinions on policies which are generally contentious in the US, things like healthcare, social security and tax. So, for example, they indicated their support for polities such as transitioning to a single-payer health care system. Whether they were for or against the policy, the average participant was a long way from neutral. Half were then asked to give reasons why they felt like they did, and the other half asked to give an explanations of how the policy would have effects. Both groups then re-rated their position for or against the policy and these "after" scores were compared with the "before" scores. The "reasons" group didn't shift their views at all, remaining just as entrenched in their positions, for or against, as when they started the experiment. The "explanations" group did change, on average becoming more moderate in their positions. The authors conclude that the illusion of explanatory depth supports political extremism, and that when we are asked to provide explanations for how we think the world works, some of that illusion evaporates, undermining our previous certainty.

    This research goes some way to explaining why causal reasons have been found to be more persuasive than statistical ones (in this case arguing that you cannot catch AIDS from touching someone with AIDS, because transmission occurs via HIV in bodily fluids, compared to arguing that you cannot catch AIDS from touching someone with it because no one ever has).

    Argumentation

    This raises the general topic of how we react to arguments. More recent research has shown that even children as young as three prefer an argument that uses reasons to a circular argument

    So it seems that, despite all the biases we're subject to, we are sensitive to reason—we discriminate better arguments from worse ones, often recognize the truth when it can be demonstrated, and adjust the strength of our beliefs when we discover we can't justify them as fully as we thought. Other work has shown that the skill of recognizing and developing arguments can be taught.

    A movement called deliberative polling uses group discussion as a way of measuring people's opinions (rather than the "stop them in the street and get a knee-jerk reaction" strategy). Typically, this approach gathers less extreme views— for example, people's opinions on the value of prisons as way of treating crime are more moderate, less in favor—as well as leaving participants better informed, more willing to compromise and more aware of nuances in the issue debated.

    The Power of Reason

    These successes of group reason are in stark contrast to the known weaknesses of individual reasoning, which is beset with a susceptibility to logical fallacies (as we saw in the Wason selection task), and biases such as confirmation bias.

    So striking is the success of reason when deployed in the service of argument that two cognitive scientists, Dan Sperber and Hugo Mercier, have even proposed that this is what reason evolved to do —convince other people in arguments, a legacy of our biological nature to live in social groups. This explains the success of groups on problems that confound individuals, and also explains why we are so good at thinking up reasons why we're right, even when we're wrong. If the purpose of reason is to persuade others that we're right, rather than find the truth directly, then this is just what you'd expect.

    This theory connects with that of another important theorist of rationality, Jonathan Haidt. In his book The Righteous Mind, Haidt argues that intuitions come before reasons in arguments about moral issues, and that our social natures means that it is next to impossible to persuade someone under conditions of group competition (such as the current conditions of US politics).

    Haidt isn't saying that we can't persuade other people about in arguments about moral issues, just that reason and argument are less important than group membership and intuition.

    If you're interested in irrationality in persuasion then the very first place to start is the book Influence by social psychologist Robert Cialdini. This classic work looks at six major factors which can help persuade other people. For example, one major factor is "reciprocity," whereby we feel compelled to give something back when people have given something to us (for example when a car salesperson has agreed to cut the price by 10%, maybe we feel we should raise the amount we're willing to pay in return). There's no need to labor the opportunities for the unscrupulous to take advantage of this kind of habit of mind. None of Cialdini's important persuasion factors are rational argument, so at first glance it looks as if Cialdini's manual of persuasion is coming firmly from the "we're irrational" side. But a second look might give us pause. Much of the evidence on which the power of these factors to aid persuasion is based assumes a situation where you have an at least half-way rational argument to begin with. A closer look at the factors Cialdini highlights shows that some of them are things we would expect to be possessed by someone whose thinking was generally rational. For example, one of Cialdini's principles is the need for people to appear consistent, so that if people first say they support protecting the environment, for example, they are then far more likely to agree to donate money to a green charity. But although our desire to be consistent can tie us in knots, for a reasoning person it is far preferable to the alternative which is to revel in inconsistency and to feel no compulsion to avoid contradiction.

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    Other persuasion factors highlighted by Cialdini are things which, you could argue, naturally accrue to someone who is more rational: they are more likeable, have more authority, are more like to gather social proof (lots of people will agree with them). Maybe relying on these factors to judge whether you should be persuaded can lead to irrational mistakes, but in the long term they might help distinguish more rational from less rational arguments.

    Paul Bloom is a proponent of the power of reasoning in moral persuasion, arguing that we have direct evidence of the power of reasoning in cases where morality has changed —over time, people have been persuaded to accept gay marriage, for example, or to reject slavery. Reasoning may not be as fast as intuition, as Haidt claims, but it can play a role in where those intuitions come from.

    Bloom cites an idea Peter Singer describes in his book The Expanding Circle. This is that when you decide to make a moral argument—i.e. an argument about what is right or wrong—you must to some extent step outside of your self and adopt an impartial perspective. If you want to persuade another that you should have more of the share of the food, you need to advance a rule that the other people can agree to. "I should get more because I'm me" won't persuade anyone, but "I should get more because I did more work, and people who did more work should get more" might. But once you employ an impartial perspective to persuade you lend force to a general rule, which may take on a life of its own. Maybe tomorrow you slack off, so your own rule will work against you. In order to persuade you struck a bargain with the group's shared understanding of what's reasonable. Once you've done this, Singer argues, you breathe life into the internal logic of argument. The "impartial perspective" develops its own dynamic, driving reason forward quite apart from the external influences of emotion, prejudice and environment. Not only can the arguments you advance come back to bite you, but they might even lead you to conclusions you didn't expect when you first formulated them.

    Are We Rational or Not?

    So where does this leave us?

    Are we a rational animal, or as Robert Heinlein said, merely a rationalizing one? Sure, there's no shortage of evidence that our intuitions, emotions, prejudices and motivations can push reason around. Good luck to you if you want to use only argument to persuade, unless you've got people who already like you or trust you (ideally both) you're going to have a hard time, but amidst the storm and shouting of psychological factors, reason has a quiet power. People do change each other's minds, and if you can demonstrate the truth of your point of view, or help someone come to realize the short-comings of theirs, maybe you can shift them along. But beware Singer's warning: logic has its own dynamic. If you open yourself to sincerely engage in argument then it is as likely that your interlocutor will persuade you as the other way around, after all, none of us has sole claim on what it means to be rational.

    What's the evidence on using rational argument to change people's minds? | Contributoria

    Tom Stafford is a lecturer in Psychology and Cognitive Science at the University of Sheffield. This article was first published on Contributoria.com, the collaborative crowd funding platform for journalists.

    Photos and images by Alexandre Normand (Flickr), David McLeish (Flickr), Saaf Faruque (Flickr), Tambako the Jaguar (Flickr).

    Want to see your work on Lifehacker? Email Andy.


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