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VCS-352 | Administration of Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 for Windows

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VCS-352 - Administration of Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 for Windows - braindump

Vendor Veritas
Exam Number VCS-352
Exam Name Administration of Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 for Windows
Questions 286 Q & A
Recent Update October 16, 2018
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VCS-352 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 for Windows

Test Code : VCS-352
Test Name : Administration of Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 for Windows
Vendor Name : Veritas
Q&A : 286 Real Questions

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Veritas has these days issued their up to date special pricing for 16346-M0032 Veritas NetBackup 5240 SAN Storage system – 201 TB put in HDD capacity – 10 Gigabit Ethernet – – IPMI 2.0, FCP – 10U – Rack-mountable for Federal agency clients. This temporary particular pricing expires on December 31 2018. For greater product information, discuss with the touchdown page of any of the suppliers under. To vicinity a government purchase on GSA or NASA SEWP contract vehicles, please discuss with any of the govt Contractor suppliers listed beneath. As always, feel free to contact us regarding product suggestions or search a list of items in our Product review category.

This Veritas applied sciences LLC (Veritas) 16346-M0032 Veritas NetBackup 5240 SAN Storage device – 201 TB put in HDD ability – 10 Gigabit Ethernet – – IPMI 2.0, FCP – 10U – Rack-mountable checklist reflects the particular pricing for federal govt customers together with protection Contract Audit agency, Veteran Affairs, Veterans Affairs branch (VA), Veterans merits Administration (VBA), Veterans Day country wide Committee, Veterans health Administration (VHA), Veterans’ Employment and working towards service (VETS), Vietnam schooling basis, Voice of the usa (VOA), US military, military Corps of Engineers, Navy, Air drive, Marine Corps, and so forth.


Product category SAN Storage gadget Product familyNetBackup 5000 total hard drive potential put in 201 TB power celebrity surecompany callVeritas Fibre Channel sureform factorRack-mountable Controller classification 6Gb/s SAS Product category SAN Storage gadget Ethernet era10 Gigabit Ethernet total hard force ability put in 201 TB power megastar certainheight 3.5″ Width 17.three″ depth31.three″ Product collection5000 Rack top 10U company callVeritas Fibre Channel surekind factorRack-mountable company Veritas technologies LLC Product model5240 Product nameNetBackup 5240 SAN Storage device Product Line NetBackup Controller class 6Gb/s SAS brand web page address Protocols IPMI 2.0 Protocols FCP

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Veritas and Pure Storage group as much as enhance facts administration within the period of modern Intelligence | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Veritas NetBackup and Pure Storage data Hub architecture allow data insurance plan for AI Clusters, huge information and IoT

MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif., Oct. 9, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Veritas technologies, the worldwide market share chief in commercial enterprise data insurance plan, in collaboration with Pure Storage (PSTG), the all-flash storage platform that helps innovators construct a far better world with records, nowadays introduced a new world effort to help joint valued clientele modernize data protection and maximize the cost of their facts for aggressive talents.

The collaboration will enable businesses to confidently consolidate up to date workloads onto Pure Storage's enjoyable information hub architecture, powered by using Pure Storage FlashBlade. With the mixing of NetBackup, Veritas' flagship expertise, enterprise statistics can be shared, included and unlocked for unprecedented price.

ultra-modern announcement builds on a relationship between Veritas and Pure Storage that comprises joint adoption of 1 a different's technology, product enhancements, revenue and support. Veritas and Pure Storage are committed to presenting mutual purchasers with a simple and low-priced approach to tackle consumer challenges round information administration

With the swift increase and fragmentation of records, organisations of all sizes combat to manage, protect and profit insight from facts. modern intelligence requires expertise that no longer most effective stores statistics but can pull insights from facts that are so rich, they're truly predictive in nature. nowadays, Veritas and Pure Storage convey information insurance policy and quick restoration for modern workloads while powering records analytics and advancing computer learning.

constructed on FlashBlade, Pure's information hub centralizes facts repositories to combine streaming analytics, backup, records lakes and artificial intelligence (AI) clusters to power unprecedented ranges of perception. Veritas NetBackup can offer protection to an entire statistics hub structure running on FlashBlade, and can also leverage FlashBlade as a backup goal, leading to quick restores when essential. in addition, Veritas NetBackup, in conjunction with Veritas CloudPoint, has been built-in with Pure Storage FlashArray™, enabling built-in picture administration by the use of the NetBackup console. The consolidation of the applied sciences between the two companies makes it possible for AI and laptop gaining knowledge of to be performed on greater, greater distinct information units—yielding better enterprise intelligence that may lead to sooner innovation.

"up to date businesses deserve to derive price from all statistics, in spite of where it be saved. a data hub architecture unifies records siloes, which makes it simpler to extract price from the massive information sets that drive AI, massive statistics and IoT," mentioned Katie Colbert, vice chairman, Alliances, Pure Storage. "by means of partnering with Veritas, Pure Storage shoppers will benefit from the merits of NetBackup to protect their constructive facts and manage their total infrastructure via a single unified answer."

improve records healing and speed from the industry's undisputed market share chief

Veritas and Pure Storage additionally assist multi-cloud corporations profit agility and velocity with integrated picture-primarily based coverage for scale-out statistics in flash arrays. With Veritas NetBackup and CloudPoint integration, organizations can obtain extra aggressive healing Time pursuits (RTO), and recognize high-performance records insurance plan for his or her statistics in flash arrays. This makes it possible for customers to meet stringent RTO and restoration aspect aim (RPO) mandates in fiscal, health care, and different verticals the place data recuperation and resilience are required.

Story Continues

extra merits of the partnership consist of:

  • expanded agility and speed with integrated photo-based insurance policy for scale-out data in flash arrays with the integration of Veritas NetBackup and Veritas CloudPoint.
  • Optimized RPO and RTO for even essentially the most vital and tremendously transactional functions from Pure Storage parallel structure.
  • enhanced data recuperation with consistent, extra reliable factor-in-time copies with Veritas NetBackup and Veritas CloudPoint integration with Pure Storage.
  • faster backup at peak performance with Veritas NetBackup and Veritas CloudPoint integration devoid of lengthy snapshot windows and utility time-outs.
  • "latest large information boom fuels enterprise chance as records stores turn into siloed, increasing the attack floor for malicious actors to take advantage of. moreover, statistics silos add complexity and price to keeping and extracting precise insights from firms' most valuable digital currency foreign money—their information," noted Jyothi Swaroop, vice chairman, global options and strategy, Veritas. "The combination of NetBackup and Pure Storage offers critical statistics insurance plan, however with ultra-fast backup to enable organizations to stay a step ahead of consumer expectations and needs, versus only reacting to them."

    About VeritasVeritas applied sciences is the chief within the international commercial enterprise statistics insurance plan and application-defined storage market. We help essentially the most crucial agencies on earth, together with 86 p.c of the international Fortune 500, lower back up and get well their statistics, maintain it cozy and purchasable, preserve in opposition t failure and achieve regulatory compliance. As companies modernize their IT infrastructure, Veritas provides the expertise that helps them cut back hazards and capitalize on their statistics. gain knowledge of greater at or observe us on Twitter at @veritastechllc.

    Veritas and the Veritas logo are emblems or registered emblems of Veritas applied sciences LLC or its associates in the U.S. and other nations. different names can be trademarks of their respective house owners.

    forward-looking Statements: Any forward-looking indication of plans for items is preliminary and all future liberate dates are tentative and are discipline to trade at the sole discretion of Veritas. Any future liberate of the product or deliberate modifications to product potential, functionality, or characteristic are subject to ongoing assessment by way of Veritas, may additionally or may additionally now not be applied, should still no longer be regarded enterprise commitments by using Veritas, should still not be relied upon in making paying for choices, and might not be incorporated into any contract.

    PR Contacts

    US ContactVeritas TechnologiesDayna Fried +1 925 493

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    Pure Storage, Veritas partner on holistic data management | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Veritas and Pure Storage announced Tuesday they are partnering to provide holistic statistics insurance policy and administration for Pure Storage's FlashArray and FlashBlade portfolios. The partnership will permit organizations to collect workloads from distinct sources to get the most value out of that consolidated statistics.

    Pure Storage's wonderful data hub architecture, powered by Pure Storage FlashBlade, unifies siloed facts. Veritas' flagship NetBackup can offer protection to a whole records hub structure, and it could possibly leverage FlashBlade as a backup target. in the meantime, FlashArray shoppers can achieve greater aggressive recovery Time pursuits (RTO) in addition to excessive-efficiency records coverage with the Veritas NetBackup and Veritas CloudPoint integrations.

    The partnership should make it simpler for corporations to apply AI and laptop learning to larger, more distinctive data units, Bradley Tipps, director of business construction and technology Alliances at Veritas, pointed out to ZDNet.

    "or not it's now not just backup and restoration -- it truly is simple," he referred to. "however the usage of broader add-ons of our solution, to convey visibility to the classification of data -- how old it's, where it came from -- which you could now build guidelines round that information set so you can determine a way to superior control it."

    moreover assisting customers get the moves enterprise price out of their statistics, the partnership aims to support businesses with assembly retention aims as well as compliance mandates.

    both agencies complement every different from both a technology and a strategic standpoint: Veritas is the biggest statistics coverage dealer out there with a large commercial enterprise installation base, while Pure Storage is essentially a storage play it truly is trying to move up market. The agencies also have standard channel companions like SHI that should be in a position to take the joint solution to market. VCS-352 Dumps and Real Questions

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    VCS-352 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 for Windows

    Test Code : VCS-352
    Test Name : Administration of Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 for Windows
    Vendor Name : Veritas
    Q&A : 286 Real Questions

    Its right to study books for VCS-352 exam, but make sure your fulfillment with those Q&A. works! I passed this exam last fall and at that time over 90% of the questions were absolutely valid. They are highly likely to still be valid as cares to update their materials frequently. is a great organization which has helped me more than once. Im a regular, so hoping for discount for my next bundle!

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    Administration of Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 for Windows

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    SQL Server AlwaysOn and Availability Groups | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    Typical use cases (scenarios) for AlwaysOn and availability groups include the following:

  • Need for High Availability nearing five-nines (99.999% available). This means that your database layer must be super resilient to failure and have nearly no data loss in the case of failure.
  • You have disaster recovery (DR) needs that need to replicate data to another site (perhaps on the other side of the country or planet), but you can tolerate a little bit of data loss (and data latency).
  • You have a performance need to offload some operational functions such as database backups away from your primary database. These must be completely accurate and have the highest integrity for recovery purposes.
  • You have a performance and availability need to offload read-only processing/access away from your primary transactional database, and you can tolerate a bit of latency. Even when the primary is down, you still provide read-only access to your applications.
  • All of the these can be addressed by this new AlwaysOn Availability Groups feature, and it’s easier to do than you think.

    Windows Failover Cluster Services

    Windows Failover Cluster Services (WFCS) is actually considered a part of the basic HA foundation components described earlier, except that it’s possible to build an HA system without it (for example, a system that uses numerous redundant hardware components and disk mirroring or RAID for its disk subsystem). Microsoft has made WFCS the cornerstone of its clustering capabilities, and WFCS is used by applications that are cluster enabled. A prime example of a cluster-enabled technology is Microsoft SQL Server 2014 (and most of its components). For more on clustering or SQL clustering, see Chapter 44, “SQL Server Failover Clustering.”

    WFCS can be set up in an active/passive or active/active mode. Essentially, in an active/passive mode, one server sits idle (passive) while the other is doing the work (active). If the active server fails, the passive one takes over the shared disk and the cluster-aware applications instantaneously.

    AlwaysOn Failover Clustering Instances

    Being “always on” is a pretty powerful statement and commitment. It is now possible to mostly achieve this commitment with infrastructure, instance, database, and client-connectivity-level HA. Built on WSFC (or Failover Cluster Server (FCS) as it is also known), the SQL Server AlwaysOn configuration leverages the tried-and-true experience and technology components of SQL clustering and database mirroring under the covers (and repackaged). This new packaging and enhancement has allowed Microsoft to deprecate database mirroring in favor of these new AlwaysOn options (FCI and availability groups). AlwaysOn Failover Cluster Instances (FCI) is the server-level instance portion of the AlwaysOn HA capability. As you can see on the left side of Figure 45.1, the FCI is a two-server (node) SQL cluster that will also be utilized in an availability group configuration to give the primary (the application database that your application uses) the highest level of resilience possible. We didn’t have to make the primary have SQL instance-level availability, but are showing you that you can do more than just simple AlwaysOn configurations. This SQL Server clustered instance shares the database as a part of its clustering configuration for the instance. Server A and Server B form the SQL cluster and are configured as an active/passive cluster. The entire SQL cluster will be Node 1 in our availability group configuration. More on the availability group (database-level availability) in the next section.

    FIGURE 45.1

    FIGURE 45.1 AlwaysOn and availability group components.

    The FCI becomes fault tolerant at the server instance level for maximum availability of SQL Server itself (just as you know and love SQL clustering from the past) and is using a single storage location that is shared (owned) by the two underlying SQL instances for the clustered instances’ database storage. Okay, let’s continue exploring the concepts with AlwaysOn Availability Groups.

    AlwaysOn Availability Groups

    Figure 45.1 also shows the availability group capability. Availability groups are focused on database-level failover and availability by utilizing a data redundancy approach. Again, borrowing from the database mirroring experience (and underlying technologies), a transactionally consistent secondary replica is made that can be used for both read-only access (active for use at all times) and for failover if the primary database (primary replica) fails for any reason. In Figure 45.1, you can see a SQL Server AlwaysOn Availability Group being used for HA and even for distributing the read-only workload off of the primary SQL Server instance to the secondary replica. You can have up to four secondary replicas in an availability group with the first secondary replica being used for automatic failover (using the synchronous-commit mode), and then other secondary replicas available for workload distribution and manual failover use. Remember, this is storing data redundantly, and you can sure burn up a lot of disk storage fast. When in synchronous-commit mode, that secondary replica can also be used to make database backups because it is completely consistent with the primary replica. Outstanding!


    As with database mirroring, two primary modes are used to move data via the transaction log from the primary replica to the secondary replicas; synchronous mode and asynchronous mode. Synchronous mode means that the data writes of any database change must be done in not only the primary replica but also the secondary replica as a part of one logical committed transaction. This can be costly in the sense of doubling the writes, so the connection between the primary and secondary should be fast and nearby (within the same subnet). However, for this reason, the primary and secondary replicas are in a transactionally consistent state at all times, which makes failover nearly instantaneous. Synchronous mode is what is used for automatic failover between the primary replica and the secondary replica. You can have up to 3 nodes in Synchronous mode (essentially two secondaries and one primary at once). Figure 45.1 shows that Node 1 and Node 2 are configured to use automatic failover mode (synchronous). As previously mentioned, because of this transactional consistency, it is also possible to do database backups against the secondary replica with 100% accuracy and integrity.

    Asynchronous mode does not have the commit transaction requirement that synchronous mode has and is actually pretty lightweight (from a performance and overhead point of view). We have observed that, even in asynchronous mode, transactions made it to the secondary replicas pretty quickly (in seconds) in most cases. Network traffic and the number of transactions determine this. Asynchronous mode can also be used about anywhere you need within your stable network (across the country or even to another continent if you have decent network speeds).

    The AlwaysOn Availability Groups feature also takes advantage of transaction record compression, which allows for compression of the transaction log records used in database mirroring and AlwaysOn configurations to increase the speed of transmission to the mirror or replicas.

    In addition, as with database mirroring, during the data replication of the transaction, if data page errors are detected, the data pages on the secondary replica are repaired as a part of the transaction writes to the replica and raise the overall database stability even further (if you had not been replicating). Nice feature.

    Read-Only Replicas

    As you can also see in Figure 45.1, creating more secondary replicas is possible (up to eight). However, these must be asynchronous replicas. You can easily add these to the availability group and provide distribution of workload and significant mitigation to your performance. Figure 45.1 shows two additional secondary replicas used to handle all the read-only data accesses that would normally be hitting the primary database. These read-only replicas will have near-real-time data and can be pretty much anywhere you want (from a stable network point of view).

    For Disaster Recovery

    Figure 45.2 shows a typical AlwaysOn with availability groups configuration for DR purposes. It has a primary replica in Data Center 1, and its secondary replica is in Data Center 2. We use the asynchronous mode because of the distance and network speeds.

    FIGURE 45.2

    FIGURE 45.2 An AlwaysOn and availability group configuration for disaster recovery.

    This means that the secondary replica at the DR site is only as good as the most recent transaction that was written asynchronously. Some data loss may happen in this mode, but for the DR purposes, this is easily meeting the DR requirements and service levels needed. As a bonus (almost free actually), the DR site (secondary replica) can also be used for read-only data access (as also shown in Figure 45.2). You are essentially leveraging a copy of the primary database that would normally not have been considered available if other DR technologies were being used. Most are in continuous update mode and do not support read-only modes at all.

    Availability Group Listeners

    Looking back at Figure 45.1, we also see that the virtual network names (VNNs) that are created for the WSFCs will be used when the availability group is created. In particular, the availability group must know the virtual network names (that reference the individual instances) of all nodes in the availability group. These can be used directly to reference the primary or the secondary replicas. But for more stability (and consistency), you can create an availability group listener as part of the availability group that abstracts these VNNs away from the application that must use the databases. In this way, the application sees only one connection name at all times, and the underlying failover state is completely insulated away from the application, yielding even higher consistency and availability from the application point of view.


    Availability groups also leverage the endpoint concept for all communication (and visibility) from one node to another node in an availability group configuration. They are the exposed point used by the availability group communication between nodes. This is also the case with database mirroring. Availability group endpoints will be created as a part of each availability group node configuration (for each replica).

    Combining Failover with Scale-Out Options

    SQL Server 2014 pushes combinations of options to achieve higher availability levels. Building up an AlwaysOn FCI configuration with AlwaysOn Availability Groups with two or more replicas launches you into distributed workload scalability and maximum HA.

    Building a Multinode AlwaysOn Configuration

    Now, let’s build a multinode AlwaysOn configuration, create the clustering configuration, define the availability group, specify the databases roles, replicate the databases, and get our availability group listener up and running, as follows:

  • Verify SQL Server instances are alive and well (exist).
  • Set up WSFC.
  • Prepare the database.
  • Enable AlwaysOn HA.
  • Back up the primary databases.
  • Create the availability group.
  • Select the databases for the availability group.
  • Identify the primary and secondary replicas.
  • Synchronize the data (primary to replica).
  • Set up the listener (availability group listener).
  • Connect using the listener.
  • Fail over to a secondary.
  • Figure 45.3 shows the basic configuration that we will build. We have three nodes to work with but will focus on getting the primary and one secondary up and running in this example. The failover cluster will be named sqlproduction, the availability group will be named DXD-AG1, and the listener will be named DXD-AG1Listener. We’ll create and use a database named CompSales2014. The third node can be used to create another secondary replica for read-only accesses if you want.

    We’ve also indicated how the availability group will be used: primary (Node 1) for both read/write operations, secondary (Node 2) for backup and failover. The other secondary (Node 3, if you add it) can be used for read-only access. Okay, let’s get going.

    Verify SQL Server Instances

    We will assume that you have installed and have running at least two SQL Server instances on separate nodes that can be clustered for this configuration. These don’t have to be mirror images of each other, just viable SQL Server instances that can be enabled for AlwaysOn (Enterprise or Developer Editions). Verify that the SQL Server instances are alive and well.

    Set Up Failover Clustering

    For each of the servers (nodes), you need to configure WSFC.

    Chapter 44 showed you how to do this via the Server Manager of each node. We’ll not cover this here except to show you what the configured feature should look like before you begin creating your AlwaysOn and Availability Group configuration.

    As you can see in Figure 45.4, the Failover Cluster feature must be installed for each node.

    FIGURE 45.4

    FIGURE 45.4 The installed Failover Clustering feature as shown from the Server Manager.

    You likely have also run a validation of the cluster configuration as well.

    A number of extensive tests are performed on each node in the cluster that you are configuring. These tests take a bit of time, so go get tea or coffee, and then make sure that you look through the summary report for any true errors. You’ll likely see a few warnings that refer to items that were not essential to the configuration (some TCP/IP or network-related things are usually here). Figure 45.5 shows this cluster configuration validation running for the newly created cluster configuration. You are now ready to get into the AlwaysOn business.

    FIGURE 45.5

    FIGURE 45.5 Validation test for the cluster configuration.

    We’ve already created the cluster group access point (named sqlproduction) as you can see in Figure 45.6. The IP address for this access point is:

    FIGURE 45.6

    FIGURE 45.6 Access point for administering the cluster and cluster name.

    This cluster will contain three nodes; SQLONE, SQLTWO, and SQLTHREE, as shown in the Failover Cluster Manager in Figure 45.7.

    FIGURE 45.7

    FIGURE 45.7 Failover Cluster Manager with the sqlproduction cluster and three nodes.

    Okay, time to start the AlwaysOn configuration on the SQL Server side of the equation.

    Prepare the Database

    We first want to make sure that you have a primary database that can be used for this example. In the sample files and code listings folder for this book on the Web (and for this chapter), you’ll find a script named CreateDB4AlwaysOn.sql that you can pull into SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) right now. We will create a database on the SQLONE node and add a test table for you to play with for this example. If you already have another database you want to use, go ahead and use it. Figure 45.8 shows our script in a query window that was just executed. It created a database named CompSales2014 (as mentioned earlier), created a Product table, added data to the table for testing purposes, and did an initial database backup (to NULL).

    FIGURE 45.8

    FIGURE 45.8 SSMS execution of create db, create table , and initial database backup (to NULL).

    Enable AlwaysOn HA

    For each of the SQL Server instances that you want to include in the AlwaysOn configuration, you need to enable their instances for AlwaysOn (if is turned off by default). From each node, bring up the SQL Server 2014 Configuration Manager and select the SQL Server Services node in the Services pane. Right-click the SQL Server instance for this node (a default instance name of MSSQLSERVER in this example) and choose Properties. Figure 45.9 shows the properties of this SQL Server instance. Click the AlwaysOn High Availability tab and choose Enable. Notice that the cluster name appears in this dialog box because this server was identified already in the cluster configuration step. Now, click OK (or apply) and you’ll receive a note about having to restart the service for this option to be used. After you have closed the Properties dialog, go ahead and right-click the SQL Server instance service again, but this time choose the Restart option. This will enable the AlwaysOn HA feature. For each of the other nodes (SQLTWO and SQLTHREE), do the same for their SQL Server configuration and the SQL Server instance that is to be included in the AlwaysOn configuration.

    FIGURE 45.9

    FIGURE 45.9 Enabling AlwaysOn HA via SQL Server Configuration Manager.

    You could have also done this from PowerShell. At the prompt, just type in SQLPS and press Enter. You then enter the following:

    Enable -SqlAlwaysOn –PATH SQLSERVER:\SQL\EMU-SQL1\Default -FORCE

    It will even restart the SQL Server service for you.

    Back Up the Database

    Before we venture on to create the availability group, you want to do a full database backup of the primary database (on Node 1: SQLONE). This backup will be used to replicate the database to the replicas. From the database node of the primary database (in SSMS), choose to perform a full backup of the database by right-clicking the database, choosing Tasks, and then clicking Back Up. Figure 45.10 shows this Back Up Database dialog. Click OK to perform the full backup.

    FIGURE 45.10

    FIGURE 45.10 Doing a full database backup for the primary database (CompSales2014).

    When you finish this, you can move on to creating the availability group.

    Create the Availability Group

    From Node 1 (SQLONE node in the example), expand out the AlwaysOn High Availability node for this SQL Server instance (in SSMS). As you can see in Figure 45.11, you can right-click the Availability Group node and choose to create a new availability group (via the wizard). This is where all the action will be in creating the entire availability group.

    FIGURE 45.11

    FIGURE 45.11 Invoking the New Availability Group Wizard from SSMS.

    This starts the New Availability Group Wizard, which will select the databases, specify the replicas, select the data synchronization, and then do validation. Initially, there is a splash page for the wizard on which you’ll just click Next. This brings you to the Specify Availability Group Name dialog. Figure 45.12 shows this dialog and the availability group name of DXD-AG1 being specified. Click Next.

    Select the Databases for the Availability Group

    Next you are asked to identify which application databases you want to include in this availability group. Figure 45.13 shows our list of databases and the one we’ve selected (CompSales2014). Click Next.

    FIGURE 45.13

    FIGURE 45.13 Specifying the databases for the availability group.

    Identify the Primary and Secondary Replicas

    Specifying the replicas and how they will be used is next. Initially, there will only be one server instance (the primary). Click the Add Replicas button in the lower left (below the Server Instances list) and choose the secondary replication instance you want (SQLTWO in this example, Node 2). Now, both the primary and secondary instances should be listed. You also want to specify that each of these should be using automatic failover (up to two) by checking the check boxes. We also want the synchronous commits (up to three) option for both to get this HA feature. Figure 45.14 shows each failover and commit option specified for each server instance.

    FIGURE 45.14

    FIGURE 45.14 Specifying the instance of SQL Server to host a secondary replica and failover options.

    If you click on the Endpoints tab, you will see the endpoints that are getting generated for use by the instances to communicate with each other (hadr_endpoint for each SQL Server instance). We’ll make no changes to these (take the default).

    If you also click the Backup Preferences tab, you can indicate how (and where) you want database backups to be performed once the availability group is formed and the replicas are active. As you can see in Figure 45.15, we’ll keep the Prefer Secondary as our option for doing database backups, thus relieving the primary from this overhead task. If the secondary isn’t available for doing a backup, the primary is used (with this option).

    FIGURE 45.15

    FIGURE 45.15 Specifying database backup preferences: Prefer Secondary option.

    If you click on the Listener tab, you can see that you have two options here: not to set up the availability group listener at this time or to create one now. We’ll actually do this a bit later, so skip this for now (specify Do Not Create an Availability Group Listener Now) and click Next.

    Synchronize the Data

    Now you set up your data synchronization preferences. Figure 45.16 shows your various options. You can use the Full option, which will do full database and log backups for each selected database. Then these databases get restored to each secondary and joined to the availability group. The Join Only option starts data synchronization up where you have already restored a database and log backup. (In other words, you already restored a database at a secondary, and you just want to have that secondary join the availability group.) The Skip Initial Data Synchronization option simply says you will do the full backups for the primary databases. We’ve chosen the Full option and must specify a shared network location accessible by all replicas.

    FIGURE 45.16

    FIGURE 45.16 Specifying the initial data synchronization options for the replicas in the availability group.

    It is important that this shared location be fully accessible by the service accounts from all nodes in the availability group (the service account being used by the SQL Server services on each node). After choosing your option, click Next. This finishes the availability group creation, and you’ll now see the new group under the Availability Group node in SSMS. The availability group is functional now. You will see the primary and secondary replicas, the databases within the availability group, and an indication at the database node level as to whether the database is synchronized. If so, you are in business. However, to complete the abstraction of instance names away from the applications, you want to create the availability group listener to complete this configuration.

    Set Up the Listener

    The cluster’s VNN gets bound to the availability group listener name in this process. It is also the name exposed to the applications to connect to the availability group. As long as at least one node is functioning in the availability group, the applications never know that any node has failed.

    Right-click the availability group we created and choose to create a new listener (Add Listener). You can now specify the listener DNS name (DXD-AG1Listener in this example), a port (use 1444), and specify to use a static IP address for this listener. A small dialog box will appear (as you can see in Figure 45.17) that indicates the IPv4 address of this listener ( in this example). Click OK.

    FIGURE 45.17

    FIGURE 45.17 Specifying the new availability group listener.

    Figure 45.18 shows the availability group and the new availability group listener we just configured.

    FIGURE 45.18

    FIGURE 45.18 The new availability group listener (ready to use).

    Connect Using the Listener

    Let’s do a quick test with SSMS to connect to this new availability group listener as if it were its own SQL Server instance. As shown in Figure 45.19, we’ve started a new connection dialog that specifies the availability group listener name we just created. Go ahead and connect.

    FIGURE 45.19

    FIGURE 45.19 Connection using the availability group listener (DXD-AG1Listener).

    Then, after we connect, we open up a new query window (as shown in Figure 45.20) so that we can do a simple SELECT statement to query for the server name (SELECT @@servername;) and the first 1000 rows from the Product table in CompSales2014. As you can see, it returns the underlying SQL Server node name of SQLONE, which is the current primary node. In Figure 45.20, you can also see that the database is in a synchronized state and is fully functional within the availability group configuration. We are in business!

    FIGURE 45.20

    FIGURE 45.20 Select @@servername and a Product table select using the availability group listener connect.

    Fail Over to a Secondary

    You can fail over from within SQL Server by right-clicking the primary replica of the Availability Group node and selecting Failover. Or, you can do this from the Failover Manager. Let’s jump back over to the Failover Manager for Node 1 and see what things look like from there. Figure 45.21 shows the option to move this clustered role to another node (which is just another way of saying fail it over to another node). It also shows your failover options of Best Possible (the normal secondary replica) or to a specific replica (Move to Node SQLTWO or Move to Node SQLTHREE). When you select one of these (like Best Possible), you’ll get a Please Confirm Action warning. Remember, when you fail over, client connections will be broken and re-established to the new node and may have to rerun any changes that were not committed yet. Figure 45.22 shows the execution of the same query (via the listener) and the different node (SQLTWO) that is satisfying the client connection successfully. That is High Availability at work.

    FIGURE 45.21

    FIGURE 45.21 Failover Cluster Manager moving (failover) from one node to another.

    FIGURE 45.22

    FIGURE 45.22 Select @@servername and a Product table select using the availability group listener connection.

    Adding Replicas

    To add another replica to the configuration, you simply right-click the Availability Replicas node within the availability group you want to add it to and choose Add Replica. You’ll have to connect to existing replicas first and then identify (connect) to the new replica you want to add.

    Then, as you can see in Figure 45.23, you identify how you want this replica to be used in the availability group (read-only Yes for this example). We also want this to be updated asynchronously, so do not check the Automatic Failover or Synchronous Commit boxes. Finish the wizard the same way we did for the first replica (data synchronization, shared network location for backups, and so on).

    FIGURE 45.23

    FIGURE 45.23 Adding secondary replicas to your existing availability group.

    Then, after this is finished, you’ll have another replica available to use for read-only access (as was originally outlined in our three-node cluster in Figure 45.3). AlwaysOn and availability groups turn out to be pretty easy to configure and leverage. No reason for you to wait.

    As you can see in Figure 45.24, it is now super easy to just query the Product table from the secondary (read-only) replica of SQLTHREE directly without impacting any other node in the configuration.

    FIGURE 45.24

    FIGURE 45.24 Querying the Product table via the Read-Only Secondary (SQLTHREE).

    Dashboard and Monitoring

    Various system views, a dashboard, and dynamic management views have been added for monitoring (and debugging) the AlwaysOn Availability Groups feature. The AlwaysOn dashboard (right-click the availability group and select Show Dashboard) is used to obtain an at-a-glance view of the health of an AlwaysOn availability group, its availability replicas, and databases.

    You can use this dashboard to do the following:

  • Choose a replica for a manual failover.
  • Estimate data loss if you force failover.
  • Evaluate data-synchronization performance.
  • Evaluate the performance impact of a synchronous-commit secondary replica.
  • The dashboard also provides key availability group states and performance indicators, including the following:

  • Replica roll-up state
  • Synchronization mode and state
  • Estimated data loss
  • Estimated recovery time (redo catch-up)
  • Database replica details
  • Synchronization mode and state
  • Time to restore log
  • SQL Server AlwaysOn and availability groups dynamic management views are also available with SQL Server 2014, including the following:

  • sys.dm_hadr_auto_page_repair
  • sys.dm_hadr_cluster_networks
  • sys.dm_hadr_availability_group_states
  • sys.dm_hadr_database_replica_cluster_states
  • sys.dm_hadr_availability_replica_cluster_nodes
  • sys.dm_hadr_database_replica_states
  • sys.dm_hadr_availability_replica_cluster_states
  • sys.dm_hadr_instance_node_map
  • sys.dm_hadr_availability_replica_states
  • sys.dm_hadr_name_id_map
  • sys.dm_hadr_cluster
  • sys.dm_tcp_listener_states
  • sys.dm_hadr_cluster_members
  • And finally, SQL Server AlwaysOn and Availability Groups catalog views make it easy to see key components of the configuration. These include the following:

  • sys.availability_databases_cluster
  • sys.availability_groups_cluster
  • sys.availability_group_listener_ip_addresses
  • sys.availability_read_only_routing_lists
  • sys.availability_group_listeners
  • sys.availability_replicas
  • sys.availability_groups


    This webpage is for archival purposes only. It is no longer being maintained. Please see our new website at

    This webpage is for archival purposes only. It is no longer being maintained. Please see our new website at

    DICTIONARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND REMOTE SENSING By Philip Hoehn and Mary Lynette Larsgaard (Map & Imagery Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara Library).  Designed by John Creaser

    A Army A IN B Auto in basement AA Antiaircraft artillery; Automobile Assn. AAA Agricultural Adjustment Administration; American Automobile Assn. AACR Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules AACR2 Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules 2d. ed. AACCCM Anglo-American Cataloguing Committee for Cartographic Materials AAES American Assn. of Engineering Societies AAG Assn. of American Geographers AAGS American Assn. for Geodetic Surveying AAG Assn. of American Geographers AAPG American Assn. of Petroleum Geologists AARLS Arkansas Assn. of Registered Land Surveyors AARS Asian Assn. on Remote Sensing AARSE African Association for the Remote Sensing of the Environment AASG Assn. of American State Geologists AASP American Assn. of Stratigraphic Palynologists AB Air base ABAG Assn. of Bay Area Governments (California) ABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. ABN American Bank Note Company ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics ABSM Alberta Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Abzw Abzweigstelle AC Aerospace Center; Air Corps; American Cartographer (journal) A.C. Antonio Castro A/C Aircraft ACA American Cartographic Assn.; American Conservation Assn.; Automovil Club Argentino; Aerial Cartographics of America (Firm) ACACC Assn. des cartoth`eques et archives cartographiques du Canada = Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives ACAPS Automated Chart Production System (C&GS) ACC Assn. des cartoth`eques et archives du Canada = Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives; Academia de Ciencias de Cuba ACC Association canadienne de cartographie AC&C Office of Aeronautical Charting and Cartography (U.S.) ACCDTS Advisory Committee on Canadian Digital Toponymic Services AccuDEM High-accuracy DEM Accu-DRAPE High-accuracy DEM Draped Images ACD Aeronautical Charting Division (C&GS) ACDDS Advanced Cartographic Data Digitizing System ACE Advanced Cartographic Equipment; Advanced Cartographic Environment (PCI Carto Inc.) ACEC American Consulting Engineers Council ACG Association canadienne des geographes; Address Coding Guides ACI Assn. Cartographique Internationale = International Cartographic Assn. ACIC Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (U.S.); Automated Cartographic Information Center (Univ. of Minnesota Library) ACIU Central Interpretation Unit (Royal Air Force, Great Britain) ACLS Assn. of Canadian Lands Surveyors ACM Assn. for Computing Machinery ACMGIS Assn. for Computing Machinery Geographic Information Systems ACML Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries ACMLA Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives ACMS Automated Census Mapping System ACM- SIGGRAPH Assn. for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Graphics ACOE Army Corps of Engineers (U.S.) ACRES Australian Centre for Remote Sensing ACRS Asian Conference on Remote Sensing ACS Advanced Cartographic Systems; Agricultural Cooperative Service; Automated Cartographic Systems; Automatic chemical sprinklers; Attitude Control Subsystem (Landsat); American Community Survey (USBC) ACSAD Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands ACSC Automobile Club of Southern California ACSM American Congress on Surveying and Mapping ACSTTO Assn. of Certified Survey Technicians and Technologists of Ontario ACT Administration du Cadastre et de la Topographie (Luxembourg); Australian Capital Territory AD Administrative Division (USGS); Aeronautical data A/D Analog to digital ADAC Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club ADAR Airborne Data Acquisition and Registration (Positive Systems, Inc.) ADC Alexandria Drafting Company; American Digital Cartography Inc A-DCS Advanced/Data Collection System ADDA American Design Drafting Assn. ADE AutoCAD Data Extension ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing Satellite ADEPT Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype ADF Application Development Facility (GeoVision Corp.) ADFG Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game ADI Areas of Dominent Influence (USBC TIGER) ADK Arealdatakontoret (Denmark) ADL Alexandria Digital Library Adm. Admiral; Admiralty ADM1 First-order administrative division ADM2 Second-order administrative division ADNR Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources ADOT Arizona Dept. of Transportation ADOTPF Alaska Dept. of Transportation and Public Facilities ADP Automated data processing ADPDP Alaska Division of Policy Development and Planning ADR Aerial Data Reduction Associates Inc. ADRG ARC-digitized raster graphics (USDMA) ADRGs Arc digitized raster graphics(USDMA) ADS Aerial Data Service (firm) ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Ad. St. Aldolf Stieler ADT Advanced Data Technologies, Inc.; Abstract Data Type AdV Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen der Lander der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ADW Agricultural drainage well ADWR Arizona Dept. of Water Resources A/E Architectural/engineering A&E Architect and Engineering AEC Architecture, engineering and construction AED Analysis and Evaluation Div. AEF Alliance for Environmental Education; Accurate Environmental Forecasting, Inc. AEG Association of Engineering Geologists AEI Aerial Exposure Index AEIDC Arctic Environmental Information Data Center AEM Atmospheric Explorer Mission AERS Advanced Earth Resources Satellite AES Analysis and Evaluation Staff AESE Association of Earth Science Editors Aest. Aestuarium = Estuary AE2S Advanced Engineering and Environmental Services, Inc. AFA American Forestry Assn.; Automatic fire alarm AFB Air Force base; Aerial FotoBank (Firm) AFCEA Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Assn. AFE Automated feature extraction AFF American Fact Finder (DADSO) AFFRC Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center (Japan) AFI American Forest Inst. AFLAG Asean Federation of Land Surveying and Geomatics AFREF African Geodetic Reference Frame AfRL Akademie fur Raumforschung und Landesplanung (Germany) AFS Air Force station AFT Ambiguity function technique AFWA Air Force Weather Agency (U.S.) AG Attorney General AGC Army Geospatial Center (US); Assn. Geologique du Canada; Arkansas Geological Commission AGCHO Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office AGCO Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Office AGDS Automated Graphics Digitizing System AGI American Geological Inst.; Assn. for Geographic Information (London); Analytical Graphics, Inc. AGIC Alabama Geographic Information Council; Arizona Geographic Information Council AGILE Association of Geographic Information Laboratories AGIO Arkansas Geographic Information Office AGIS Automated Geographic Information System AgRI- STARS Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys through Aerospace Remote Sensing AGS American Geographical Society; Alberta Geological Survey AGSL American Geographical Society Library AGSO Australian Geological Survey Organisation AGSS American Geographical and Statistical Society AGU American Geophysical Union AHAP Alaska High-altitude Aerial Photography (program) AHCPR U.S. Agency for Health Care and Policy Research AHDAS Adaptable Hydrologic Data Acquisition System AHDS Arts and Humanities Data Service AHRS Attitude and Heading Reference System AHS Automated Highway System AI Artificial intelligence; Appraisal Inst. AIA American Inst. of Architects AI/ANA American Indian/Alaska Native Area AIC Australian Institute of Cartographers AICP American Inst. of Certified Planners AID Agency for International Development; Aeronautical information data AIH American Inst. of Hydrology AILESP American Indian Lands Environmental Support Project AIMS Airborne Integrated Mapping System; Automated Investigation Measurement System (Nikon) AIPG American Inst. of Professional Geologists AIPP Ambroziak Infinite Perspective Projection AIR American Indian reservation AIRB Alabama Inspection and Rating Bureau AIRS Atomspheric Infrared Sounder AIREA American Inst. of Real Estate Appraisers AIRS Atmospheric infrared sounder AISH Assn. Internationale des Sciences Hydrologiques = International Assn. of Hydrological Sciences AJG African Journal of Geoinformation AK Alaska AL Alabama Ala. Alabama ALA American Library Assn. ALAE Atmospheric LymanAlpha Emissions ALARS Alaska Land and Resources System ALI Advanced Land Imager ALIS Automated Land Information System (TVA) ALMRS Automated Land and Mineral Record System (US BLM) ALOHA Aerial Locations of hazardous Atmospheres (model) ALP Automated Lands Project ALSA Alberta Land Surveyors Association Alt. Altitude ALTA American Land Title Assn. ALTM Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper (Optech) ALTMS Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping System AM Automated Mapping AMA Associacion Mexicana Automovilistica AMAD Airborne Missions and Applications Division (NASA-Ames Research Center) AMAP Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program AMC Assn. Mineralogique du Canada; Australian Map Circle Inc. AME Aero-Metric Engineering Inc. AM/FM Automated mapping/facilities management AMG Australian Map Grid; Automated machine guidance AMI Applied Mapping Inc. AMIE Airglow Measurements of Infrared Measurements Emissions AMIS Aviation Management Information System AMISAR Active Microwave ImagerSynthetic Aperture Radar AML ARC Macro Language AMPR American Map Price Record AMPS Automatic Mapping and Planning System AMS Army Map Service; American Meteorological Society; Attitude Measurement Sensor; Automated Mapping System AMSD Adjusted Mapping Support Data AMSR Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (JPL) An. Anno = year A.N.A. Asociacion Nacional Automovilistica (Mexico) ANA Area Navigation Approach ANAE Atlas of North American English ANARE Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions ANGEL Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ITT) ANTGS Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System ANMS Automated Notice to Mariners System ANOVA Analyses of variance ANRC Alaska Native Regional Corp. ANSI American National Standards Inst. ANV Alaska Native village ANVSA Alaska Native village statistical area ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANZLIC Australia New Zealand Land Information Council ANZMapS Australian and New Zealand Map Society AO Area of Operations AOA Allen Osborne Associates, Inc. AODC Australian Oceanographic Data Centre AOI Area of Interest AOIPS Atmospheric and Oceanographic Image Processing System AOL America On Line AOLS Assn. of Ontario Land Surveyors AOML Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory AOO American Oceanographic Organization AOSS Ashtech Office Suite for Survey AP Analytical Plotter APA American Planning Assn. APCA Air Pollution Control Assn. APBEL Atlantic Provinces Board of Examiners for Land Surveyors APCM Aerial Photography Contract Management System APD Automated Plat Design (ConneXt, Inc.) A.P.D.R. Avec privilege du Roi = By license of the King APE Allen Precision Equipment APEGGA Assn. of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta APFO Aerial Photography Field Office (USDA) API American Petroleum Inst.; Application programming interface APIS Aerial Photography Information System APMI Aerial Photography Micrographic Index System (USGS) Apo. Apogee APPSR Aerial Photography Progress Summary Report APQF Aerial Photography Quad File APR Airborne Profile Recorder APS Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor APSR Aerial Photography Summary Record APSRS Aerial Photography Summary Record System (USGS) APT Automatic picture transmission; Area proportional to APTS Aerial Profiling of Terrain System APWA American Public Works Assn. APWWA American Public Water Works Assn. AR Arkansas ARA Address Register Area; Algemeen Rijksarchief (Netherlands) ARAMCO Arabian American Oil Company Arb. Arbeiter ARC Ames Research Center (NASA); Appalachian Regional Commission ARCC American Rivers Conservation Council ArcFM Arc Facilities Manager (ESRI) Arch. Architect; Architecture Arc-SDE Arc Spatial Data Engine ARG American Resources Group ARIA Arizona Regional Image Archive ARIS Alabama Resource Information System; Arizona Resources Information System Ark. Arkansas ARM Administracion de Recursos Minerales (Panama); Airborne Remote Mapping ARMIS Arkansas Resource Management Information System ARMS Agricultural Resource Management System (Canada) Arr. Arrondissement ARRSTC Asian Regional Remote Sensing Training Centre ARS Agricultural Research Service (USDA) ARSC Australian Remote Sensing Conference ARSP Applied Remote Sensing Program (Univ. of Arizona) Artil. Artillery ARZ AutoRestricted Zone AS Anti-spoofing; Area source; automatic sprinklers A-S Anti-spoofing ASA American Standards Assn. ASAP Advanced Scientific Array Processor; Agricultural Sciences Advisory Panel ASAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar ASB. CL. Asbestos-covered frame building ASC American Society of Cartographers ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE SMD American Society of Civil Engineers Surveying and Mapping Division ASCF Ames Satellite Communications Facility ASCIE American Standard Code for Information Exchange ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASCLA Assn. of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ALA) ASCP America Society of Consulting Planners ASCS Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (USDA) ASDD Australian Spatial Data Directory ASDI Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure ASEE American Society for Engineering Education ASF Alaska SAR Facility ASFE Assn. of Soil and Foundation Engineers ASFPM Assn. of State Floodplain Managers ASGA Assn. des Services Geologiques Africains ASGC Australian Statistical Geographical Classification ASGS Australian Statistical Geography Standard ASHTD American Assn. of State Highway and Transportation Officials ASI Analytical Surveys, Inc. ASLA American Society of Landscape Architects ASLO American Society of Limnology and Oceanography ASMC Alaska Surveying and Mapping Conference ASO Australian Survey Office ASP American Society of Photogrammetry; Application service provider ASPG American Society for Professional Geographers ASPLS Alabama Society of Professional Land Surveyors; Alaska Society of Professional Land Surveyors ASPRS American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ASPS Arkansas Society of Professional Surveyors ASRL Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory Ass. Association Assn. Association AST Atlantic Standard Time; Automated Summary Tables ASTER Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTM American Society for Testing Materials AT Aero-Triangulation ATC Air Target Chart; Advance Technology Corp. ATID Attribute ID ATISRoads Arizona Transportation Information System (ADOT) ATKIS Amtliches Topographisch-Kartographisches Informationssystem ATM Adaptive triangular mesh ATMET Atmospheric, Meteorological and Environmental Technologies, LLC ATMS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder ATON Aids to Navigation ATR1 Automatic Target Recognition module (Leica) ATS Advanced Technology Satellite; Applications Technology Satellite; Automated Technical Systems (Firm) AU Astronomical unit AURISA Australasian Urban and Regional Information Systems Assn. AUSDEC Australasian Data Exchange Centre AUSLIG Australian Surveying and Land Information Group AUV Autonomous underwater vehicle AUVSI Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International Av. Avenue AV Audio-visual; AmericaView AVCA Audio-visual and Cartographic Archives Div., National Archives of Canada Ave. Avenue AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer AVI Audio Visual Interleave AVIRIS Advanced Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer AVL Automatic Vehicle Location AVNIR Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer AVO Alaska Volcano Observatory; Audio/visual object; Amplitude Versus Offset; AVRI Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory AVS Application Visualization System (Visual Systems, Inc.) AWAR Area weighted average resolution AWG Association for Women Geoscientists AWIPS Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System AWLS American West Land Surveying (Firm) AWMC Ancient World Mapping Center AWMSAS ArcView Marine Spill Analysis System AWRA American Water Resources Assn. AWS Air Weather Service AWWA American Water Works Assn. AZ Arizona A.Z. Alexander Zakreski AzMAP Arizona Mapping Advisory Council b Battalion B Brigade; Bulletin B&L Boggs and Lewis BA Booksellers Assn. of Great Britain & Ireland BAAMA Bay Area Automated Mapping Assn. BADGER Bay Area Digital GeoResource BAKOSUR- TANAL Badan Koordinasi Survey dan Pemetaan Nasional (Indonesia) = National Coordination Agency for Surveying and Mapping (Indonesia) Banobras Banco Nacional de Obras y Servicios Publicos (Mexico) BAOR British Army of the Rhine BAOSC Bay Area Open Space Council BARCIS BARCode Information System BARD San Francisco Bay Area Regional Database BARP Bundesamt fur Raumplanung (Switzerland) BART Bay Area Rapid Transit District (California) BAS British Antarctic Survey BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; Bay Area Shared Information Consortium BASINS Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Systems (USEPA) BATCO Boulder Area Trails Coalition BB Band-by-band; Blattbereich BBS Bulletin board system BC British Columbia; Ballistic camera; Bureau of the Census (U.S.) BCC Bibliographic Control Committee (ACMLA) BCDC Bay Conservation and Development Commission BCGS Board of Coast and Geodetic Survey (Philippines) BCH Beach BCSS Battlefield Command Support System (Australian Army) BDC Base de donnees sur les collectivities (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) BDET Bengston, DeBell, Elkin & Titus Ltd. BDG Bridge Bdy Boundary BE Brick enclosed elevator BEA Bernhard, Eisenbraun and Associates; Bureau of Economic Analysis (US) B.E.F. British Expeditionary Force BEG Bureau of Economic Geology (Texas) BEICIP Bureau d'Etudes Industrielles et de Cooperation de l'Institut Francais du Petrole bes. besonders BES Bureau of Environmental Service (Portland, Oregon) Betrbf Betriebsbahnhof BETS Brunson Electronic Triangulation System BEV Bundesamt fur Eich- und Vermessungswesen (Austria) BFE Base flood elevation BfGR Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Germany) BfLR Bundesanstalt fur Landeskunde und Raumentwicklung (Germany) BG Block group BGC Business Geographics Conference BGHT Bight BGN Board on Geographic Names (U.S.) bgs Below ground surface BGS British Geological Survey Bgw. Bergwerk = mine Bhf. Bahnhof = Railway station BHIC Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum = Brabant Historical Information Centre BHS Boston Harbor Software, Inc. BI Big Idea (NIMA); Business intelligence BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs (U.S.) BIC Borderlands Information Center (Texas) BICI Book item contribution identifier BIG Brunei Institution of Geomatics BIL Band Interleaved by Line BIM Building information modeling BIMCC Brussels International Map Collectors' Circle BIOMAPS Biodiversity Mapping for Protection and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources BIOTROP Regional Center for Tropical Biology (Indonesia) BIP Band Interleaved by Pixel Bl. Boulevard BLDG Building BLG Binary line generalization BLIS Brownfields Location Information System (Wisconsin Dept. of Commerce) BLM Bureau of Land Management (U.S.) BLOB Binary large object BLPU Basic land and property unit BLS Bahamas Lands and Surveys Dept. BLT Bundesamt fur Landestopographie (Switzerland) BLVA Bayerisches Landesvermessungsamt Blvd. Boulevard BM Bench mark; Bureau of Mines BMA Botswana Ministry of Agriculture BMAC Bactria Margiana Archaeology Complex BMDO Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (U.S.) BMG Bureau of Mines and Geosciences (Philippines) .BMP Bitmapped image format (Microsoft Corp.) BMR Bureau of Mineral Resources (Australia, Papua New Guinea) BMW Barclay Mapworks, Inc. BN Biblioth`eque Nationale BNA Block numbering area BND Stream bend BNDT Base nationale de donnees topographiques (Canada) BnF Bibliotheque national de France BNPC Bathymetric navigation planning chart BNPD Bivariate Normal Probability Density BNSC British National Space Centre BOA Building omission area BOC Bureau of the Census BOFRS Books and Open-File Report Section (USGS) BOLS BADGER On-line Service BOM Bureau of Mines BOP Bureau of Printing BOR Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.) BOREAS Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study BORPELS Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors (Calif.) BOSS Behavior of Offshore Structures, Conference on BOTUS Best of the U.S. (Space Imaging) BP Boundary marker (USDMA) BPA Bonneville Power Administration BPI Bits per Inch BPPT Badan Pembinaan dan Penerapan Teknologi (Indonesia) BPR Bureau of Public Roads BPS Bits per Second BR Bureau of Reclamation br. breit Br. Breite Brck. Brucke = bridge BRFD Bidirectional reflectance distribution function BRGM Bureau de recherches geologique et minieres (France) BRICMICS British and Irish Committee for Map Information and Catalogue Systems BRH Bush, Roed & Hitchings (Firm) BRS Bibliographic Retrieval Service BS Bureau of Statistics (Japan) Bs. As. Buenos Aires BSB Bayerische Staatsbibliothek BSC Boston Survey Consultants BSE Base flood elevation BSNH Headwater basin BSQ Band Sequential BSR Bibliographic Standard Record BSU Base Spatial Unit BT Base Topo BTA Basic Trading Areas (FCC) BTS Bureau of Transportation Statistics (US) BUIS Beihai Urban Information Center BUPMIS Beihai Urban Planning Management Information System BUPNIS Beijing Underground-Network Information System BUTE Butte BVG Berliner Verkehrs Gesellschaft BVU Brightness Value Unit B/W Black and white BWC Bandwidth Compression BWE Bandwidth Expansion c Company C Cartography; Celsius (degrees) ca. Circa CA California; Cartographic and architectural; Census agglomeration (Canada) C/A Coarse-Acquisition (code) CAA Civil Aeronautics Administration (U.S.); Civil Aviation Authority (Great Britain) CAAD Cartographic and Architectural Archives Div., National Archives of Canada CAC Center for Advanced Computation (Univ. of Illinois); Compressed Aeronautical Chart (U.S. government) CACS Canadian Active Control System CAD Computer-aided drafting; Computer assisted design CADD Computer-aided design and drafting CADMAP Computer-aided drafting, mapping, and photogrammetry CADRG Compressed ADRG CAFF Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna CAFM Computer-aided facility management CAG Canadian Association of Geographers CaGIS Cartography and Geographic Information Science (journal)); Cartography and Geographic Information Systems (journal) CAGIS Cartography and Geographic Information Society Cal. California Calif. California CALMIT Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln) CALS Connecticut Assn. of Land Surveyors; Computer-aided acquisition and logistic support; Computer Assisted Land Survey System (SPDK) CALTRANS California Dept. of Transportation CAM Computer aided mapping CAMA Computer-aided mass appraisal system (Montana) CAMEO Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations System (U.S.) CAMFER Center for the Assessment & Monitoring of Forest & Environmental Resources (Univ. of Calif., Berkeley) CAN Controlled Area Network CANRI Community Access to Natural Resources Information CanSIS Canadian Soil Information System CANSPACE Canadian Space Geodesy Forum CanVec Canadian Vector Data CAP Cooperative Agreements Program (FGDC) CAPCO Capital Area Planning Council (Texas) CAPDU Canadian Assn. of Public Data Users CAR Curriculum, Accreditation and Registration Committee (ACSM); Central African Republic CARES Center for Agricultural, Resource, and Environmental Systems (Univ. of Missouri) CARL Canadian Assn. of Research Libraries CARS Computer-Assisted Reproduction; Center for Applications of Remote Sensing (Oklahoma State Univ.) CASA Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (Univ. College, London) CASE Computer-Aided Software Engineering CASI Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager CaSIL California Spatial Information Library CASS Coding and Accuracy Support System (USPS) CAST Center for Advanced and Spatial Technologies (Univ. of Arkansas) CAT Computer Assisted Thermography CATS Consequences Assessment Tool Set (FEMA) CAVA Cartographic and Audio-Visual Archives Div. = Div. des archives cartographiques et audio-visuelles (DACA), National Archives of Canada CAZRI Central Arid Zone Research Institute CB Column builder C.B. Hollow concrete or cement block construction CBD Central business district CBEP Community-Based Environmental Protection (USEPA program) CBEPS Canadian Board of Examiners for Professional Surveyors CBET Concrete block enclosed elevator CBF Cartographic boundary file CBI China Burma India Theatre of Operations (WW II) CBL Centraal Bureau Luchtkartering (Suriname); Calibration (or calibrated) base line cbm Kubikmeter (cubic meter) CBM Coalbed Methane Map (Wyoming State Geological Survey) CBN Cooperative Base Network CBP Chesapeake Bay Project C. BR Concrete, lime, cinder or cement brick CBS Community Base Station CBWE Corn Blight Watch Experiment CC Cartographic Catalog C.C. Chain carrier CCA Canadian Cartographic Assn. CCAFS Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (Florida) CCAP Competative Cooperative Agreements Program (U.S.) CCBCCM Canadian Committee for the Bibliographic Control of Cartographic Materials CCC Canadian Committee on Cataloging; Cataloging and Classification Committee (MAGERT) CCCELS California Council of Civil Engineers and Land Surveyors CCD Census county division; Computer Center Div. (USGS); Charged couple device; Charged-coupled device; Charge-coupled device CCDM Core Cadastral Domain Model CCELC Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification CCGE Canadian Council on Geographic Education CCGM Center for Computing Graphics (Delft Univ. of Technology) CCIG Centre canadien d'information sur la geoscience CCID Chain component ID CCISA Congress of Cartographic Information Specialist Associations CCITT International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee CCK Centrale Catalogus Kartografie (National Library of the Netherlands) CCLS Canadian Council of Land Surveyors CCM Canada Centre for Mapping; Compressed County Mosaic (USDA) CCNS4 Computer Controlled Navigation System (E. Coyote Enterprises, Inc.) CCPS Central Colorado Professional Surveyors CCPR California Center for Population Research CCRS Canada Centre for Remote Sensing CCS Census consolidated subdivision (Canada) CCT Computer Compatible Tape; Centro de Ciencia Tropical CD Compact disc; Conservation Div. (USGS); Committee Draft (ISO) CDA Colorado Dept. of Agriculture CDC California Dept. of Conservation; Control Data Corporation CD-CINC CD-ROM Consistent Interface Committee (U.S.) CDED Canadian Digital Elevation Data CDF Cumulative distribution function; California Dept. of Forestry (and Fire Protection) CDFG California Dept. of Fish and Game CDFS Cloud Depiction and Forecast System CDH Communications and data handling CDi Compact Disk interactive CDIS Coordinated Design and Information System CDL Cropland data layers (USDA NASS) CDMG California Div. of Mines and Geology CDN Coordinates, definitions and notations CDOT Colorado Dept. of Transportation CDOW Colorado Division of Wildlife CDOWG CD-ROM Data Origination Working Group (U.S.) CDP Cartographer Development Program; Census designated place; Colorado Division of Planning .CDR CorelDraw format CD-R Compact disk-recordable CD-ROM Compact disk-read only memory CDRS Collaborative Digital Reference Service CDS Catalogue of Data Sources CDT Computer display terminal; Central Daylight Time; Constrained Delaunay triangulation CDTED Compressed digital terrain elevation data CDV Cartographic data visualizer CD-W Compact disk-- re-writable CDWR California Dept. of Water Resources CE Corps of Engineers C.E. Civil Engineer CEAL Centro Editor de America Latina CEAO County Engineers Association of Ohio CEBAF Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility CECO Consulting Engineers Council of Ohio CECSVB Comit pour l'Etablissement de la Carte des Sols et de la Vegetation de la Belgique CECW Consulting Engineers Council of Washington CEDAC Comprehensive Economic Data Atlas of China CEDARE Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe CEDD Committee on the Exchange of Digital Data CEE Comite Estatal de Estadisticas (Cuba) CEGET Centre d'Etudes de Geographie Tropical (Bordeaux) CEGIS Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (USGS) CELSOC Consulting Engineers and Land Surveyors of California Cem. Cemetery CEMA Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Assn. CEMAR Centro de Estudos do Mar CEN Comite europeen de normalization electronique CENREN Centro de Recursos Naturales (El Salvador) CENTA Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (El Salvador) CENTAUR Civil Engineering Technologies for Automatic Roadmaking (DSNP) CEO European Centre for Earth Observation CEONet Canadian Earth Observation Network CEP Celestial Ephemeris Pole CERCLIS Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (US EPA) CERCO Comite Europeen de Responsibles de la Cartographie Officielle CERD Catalog of Environmental Resource Data CERES California Environmental Resource Evaluation System CERCG Centre d'Etudes et de Realisations Cartographiques Geographiques (France) CERR Centre d'Ecologie des Ressources Renouvelables (France) CES Committee on Earth Sciences CET Commission on Education and Training (IGA) CETENAL Comision de Estudios del Territorio Nacional (Mexico) CEU Continuing education unit CFC Comite francais de cartographie CFCC Census Feature Class Code CFF Cartographic Feature File CFUA Canadian Fire Underwriters' Association C.G. Coast Guard CGA Color Graphics Adaptor CGC Commission geologique du Canada CGDB Central Geographic Data Base CGDI Canadian Geomatics Digital Initiative ; Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure CGE Comision Geografico-Exploradora (Mexico) CGI Computer Graphics Interface; Common gateway interface; Center for Geographic Information CGIC Canadian Geoscience Information Centre CGIS Center for GIS (Qatar) .CGM Computer graphics metafile CGMW Commission for the Geological Map of the World CGNHS Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey CGNS Canadian Geographical Names Service GCN1 Canadian Geographical Names, Level 1 CGPM Conference General des Poids et Mesures CGPS Continuous global positioning system CGRG Canadian Geomorphology Research Group CGS California Geological Survey; Civil GPS Service; Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.); Colorado Geological Survey C&GS Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.); Commercial & Government Systems (Kodak) CGSB Canadian General Standards Board CGSB-COG Canadian General Standards Board Committee on Geomatics CGSIC Civil GPS Service Interface Committee CGSICO Civil GPS Service Interface Committee CGTP Cartographic and Geospatial Technology Programs CGU Canadian Geophysical Union CGW Computer Graphics World (journal) CH; Ch. Chief Hydrologist; Church; Chapel CHA Canadian Hydrographic Association CHEEC Center for the Health Effects of Environmental Contamination (Univ. of Iowa) CHEST Combined Higher Education Software Team (UK) CHGIS China Historical Geographic Information System (Harvard University) CHIA Cumulative Hydrologic Impact Assessment CHNM Marine channel CHS Canadian Hydrographic Service CI Compass and inclinometer; Coal Investigations Map (USGS) CIA Central Intelligence Agency (U.S.) CIAF Centro de Investigaciones en Percepcion Remota CIAS CD-ROM Index Architecture Specification Working Group (U.S.) CIACER Centro de Investigacion y Aplicacion de Sensores Remotos (Bolivia) CIB Controlled image base CIBESA Cartografica Iberica S.A. CICAEDAS Committee Investigating Cartographic Entity, Definitions, and Standards CICLOPS Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations CID Community Information Database (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) CIDAMM Centro de Informacion y Documentacion del Area Metropolitana de Madrid CIE Iompair Eireann Coras; Classified image editor CIESIN Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network CIG Canadian Inst. of Geomatics; Climate Interest Group; Centro de Investigaciones Geotecnicas (El Salvador) CIGF Centre d'Information Geographique et Fonci`ere Ministre de l'Energie et des Ressources, Quebec) CIGNET Cooperative International GPS Network CIKM Conference on Information Knowledge Management CIM Collection insertion map; Council on Information Management (Virginia) CIMIS California Irrigation Management Information System CINDI Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information (USGS) CIO Central Imagery Office (U.S.) CIP Contour Interpolation Program; Canadian Institute of Planners CIR Color infrared CIRSS California Integrated Remote Sensing System CIS Canadian Inst. of Surveying; Color Imaging Systems (Barneyscan Corp.) CISD Cook Islands Dept. of Survey CISIG Conservational International GIS CISM Canadian Inst. of Surveying and Mapping CIST Centre d'information sur les sciences de la Terre (Canada) CITYG City Graphic CIU Central Interpretation Unit (Royal Air Force, Great Britain) CK-PL Check plotter CLA Canadian Library Association CLD Center line data CLDB Common Land Data Base CLDS Canada Land Data System(s) CLI Canada Land Inventory CLICK Center for LiDAR Information Coordination (USGS) CLID Class identifier CLIRSEN Remote Sensing Center (Ecuador) Clk. Clerk CLL Corrected line length CLOMA Confidential letters of map amendment CLS Canada Lands Surveyor CLSA California Land Surveyors Assn. CLSR Canada Lands Surveys Records CLU Common land units CLUMP Canada Land Use Monitoring Program cm Centimeter CM Cartographic material; Configuration management CMA Census Metropolitan Area (Statistics Canada); Central Mapping Agency (New South Wales) CMAP Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning CMAS Circular Mean Accuracy Standard CMCC California Mapping Coordinating Committee CMD Current meter digitizer; Command CMEDS Comprehensive Mapping and Engineering Data System (LES) CMI Corvallis Microtechnology Inc. CMIB Controlled multispectral image base CMIS Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder CMM Coalbed Methane Map (Wyoming State Geological Survey) CMO Canada Map Office CMOTS Cartographic Material Order and Tracking System (USGS) CMP Coastal Mapping Program; Camp CMS California Map Society; Cavity Monitoring System (Optech); Clay Minerals Society CMSA Consolidated metropolitan statistical area CMSDU Commission on Map Use and Spatial Data Use (ICA) CMSM Committee on Marine Surveying and Mapping CMT Corvallis Microtechnology Inc. C&MT Communication & Measurement Technologies Ltd. CMYK Cyan-magenta-yellow-black CNA Comiss~ao Nacional do Ambiente (Portugal) CNIDR Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (USA) CNES Centre national d'etudes spatiales (France) CNEXO Centre National pour l'Exploitation des Oceans (France) CNFL Confluence CNI Coalition for Networked Information CNIG Centro Nacional de Informac~ao Geografica = Portuguese National Center for Geographic Information CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche (Italy); Canadian National Railway CNRA Commission on National and Regional Atlases (ICA) CNRG Centre National de Recherches Geomorphologiques (Belgium) CNROA Centro Nacional de Reconhecimento e Ordenamento Agrario (Portugal) CNRS Centre National de Recherches Scientifique (France) CNRST Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (Burkina Faso) CNSTAT Committee on National Statistics (U.S.) Co. Company; County CO Cartometric operations; Colorado COBOL Common Business Oriented Language COBRIG Council of British Geography COE Corps of Engineers (US Army) COEB Coastal and Estuarine Oceanography Branch (US NOS) COFPAES Committee on the Federal Procurement of Architect and Engineer Services COFRS Chinese Operational Earth Resources Satellite COG Council of Governments COGNA Council of Geographic Names Authorities COGO Coordinate geometry; Coalition of Geospatial Organizations C.O.I. Office of Coordinator of Information (U.S.) col. Color; colored Col. Colonel; Colorado COL Agricultural colony COLD Computer Output to Laser (optical) Disc Com. Committee; Commission; Commodore COM Component Object Model (Microsoft) COMAP Continuous area pattern mapping Comdg. Commanding COMIS Cartographic Operations Management Information System COMPAS Coastal Ocean Management, Planning and AssessmentSystem COMSAT Communications Satellite (Corp.) CONAE Comision nacional de actividades espaciales (Argentina) CONC. Concrete or reinforced concrete construction Cong. Congress Conn. Connecticut CONRIM Committee on Natural Resource Information Management(Alaska) CONUS Continental United States CO-COPS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (NOAA) COP/BOP City of Portland Bureau of Planning CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture CORC Cooperative Online Resource Catalog (OCLC) Corp. Corporal; Corporation CORS Continuously operated reference station(s); Continuously operating GPS reference stations CORSE Conference on Remote Sensing Education COS Central Office of Statistics (Malta) COSMIC Computer Software Management and Information Center COSML Committee on Southern Map Libraries COSPAR Committee on Space Research COTS Commercial-off-the-shelf COVIS Commonwealth of Virginia Information Systems CP Cartographic Perspectives (journal); color printer CPFS Colorado Plateau Field Station (USGS) CPH Cartographic Publishing House (China) CPID Composite ID CPLAR Community Perspectives on Land and Agrarian Reform (South Africa) CPLC Court of Private Land Claims CPS Characters per second; Contour plotting system; Cartographic production system C.P.S.C.R.A.M. Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesareae Regiaeque Apostolicae Majestatis = With the privilege of the Holy Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty CPSO Cataloging Policy and Support Office (Library of Congress) CPU Central processing unit CR Central Region; Coordinate reader CRA Common Resource Area CRADA Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (U.S) CRAG Columbia Region Association of Governments CRAIGES Cartographic Reproduction and Interactive Graphic Editing System CRBT Centre de Recherches Biologiques Tropicales (Algeria) CREPUQ Conference des recteurs et des principaux des universites du Quebec CRESP Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (U.S.) CRG Centre de Recherche en Geomatique (Universite Laval) CRIB Computerized Resources Information Bank CrIS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (US) CRISTA Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere CRKT Tidal creek CRL Cartographic research laboratory CrlMSS Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite CrlS Cross-track Infrared Sounder CSD Census subdivision (Canada) CRM Consejo de Recursos Minerales (Mexico); Customer relationship management CRN Canadian Road Network CRPD City Real Property Database CRREL Cold Region Research and Engineering Laboratories CRTR Crater CRSA Canadian Regional Science Association CRSC California Remote Sensing Council CRSS Canadian Remote Sensing Society CRT Cathode ray tube CRV Cloth, rolled, varnished CS Color scanner; Cubic splines C.S. Charles Simonneau CSA Canadian Space Agency CSAA California State Automobile Association CSAC Census Statistical Area Committee (U.S.) CSAV Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences CSC Computer Sciences Corporation; Commercial Space Center (NASA); Coastal Services Center (NOAA); California Surveying Corporation CSDGM Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata CSDMS Centre for Spatial Database Management and Solutions CSDS California Surveying and Drafting Supply CSFS Colorado State Forest Service CSG Cartography Special Group, Assn. of American Geographers; Council of State Governments CSIG Cyberinfrastrucure Summer Institute for Geoscientists CSIN Computer Systems Information Network CSIP Continental Scale International Project CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia) CSIC Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain) CSISS Center for Spatially Integrated Social Sciences (UCSB) CSML Committee on Southern Map Libraries CSOC Consolidated Space Operations Center CSP Conformal Space projection CSPA Council of State Planning Agencies CSPG Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists CSR Center for Space Research (Univ. of Texas at Austin) CSRS Canadian Spatial Reference System CSUF California State University, Fresno CSUN California State University, Northridge CST Central Standard Time; Chicago Steel Tape Co.; Coast; Certified Survey Technician CSVNS California Surveying Virtual Survey Network (California Surveying and Drafting Supply Ct. Court CT Census tract; Connecticut CTA Crafton, Tull & Associates CTC Cartoteca de Catalunya; Cooperating Technical Communities CTCUQ Commission de transport de la Communaute urbaine de Quebec CTD Chief, Topographic Division; Conductivity-temperature-depth CTI Critical Technologies Inst. (RAND Corp.) CTI-S Centre for Topographic Information - Sherbrooke CTL Cartographic Technology Lab. CTOG Contour to Grid CTS Communications Technology Satellite (Canadian); Conventional terrestrial system CUA Canadian Underwriters' Association CUAC Cartographic Users Advisory Council (U.S.) CUBE Combined Uncertainty and Bathymetry Estimator CUET Cuesta CUGiK Centralny Urzad Geodezji i Kartografii (Poland) CUR Council on Undergraduate Research CUSEC Central United States Earthquake Consortium CUSMAP Conterminous United States Minerals Assessment Plan CVO Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS) CWHR Califoria Wildlife Habitat Relationships CWRA Canadian Water Resources Program CWS Cartographic workstation CYP Cape York Peninsula CYPLUS Cape York Peninsula Land Use Strategy CZCS Coastal Zone Color Scanner CZM Coastal Zone Management (U.S. federal act of 1972) C4G Center for GeoInformatics (Louisiana State University) D Division; Dwelling DA Data Acquisition; Dept. of the Army; Dissemination area (Canada) D/A Digital to Analog (converter) DAAC Div. des archives audiovisuelles et cartographiques, Archives nationales du Canada; Distributed Active Archive Center DAAS Defense Automatic Addressing System (USDMA) DAASC Defense Automated Addressing System Center (USDMA) DAC Digital-to-Analog Converter DACA Div. des archives cartographiques et audio-visuelles, Archives nationales du Canada DACH Deputy Assistant Chief Hydrologist DADS Digital Assisted Data Base System DADSO Data Access and Dissemination System Office (USBC) DAESA Dual Axis Fourier Shape Analysis DAFIF Digital Aeronautical Flight Information Files (NGA) DAG Directorate of Geographic Affairs (Lebanon) DAIS-1 Digital Airborne Imagery System (Space Imaging (Firm)) DAISIDS Distributed Ad-hoc Intelligent Sensor-Intrusion Detection System DAL Data Analysis Laboratory DAM Detection and mapping DAMES Defense Automated Message Exchange Service (USDMA) DANE Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (Colombia) DAR Data acquisition request DARDC Device for Automatic Remote Data Collection DARO Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (U.S.) DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (U.S.) DAS Delaware Assn. of Surveyors; Digial Aerial Solutions, LLC DA&SM Data Acquisitions & Systems Maintenance DAT Digital audio tape DATIS Digital Airborne Topographic Imaging System DATPE Direction de l'Amernagement du Territoire et de la Protection de l'Environnement (Haiti) D.A.V. Deutscher Alpenverein DAVE-G Dialogue Assisted Virtual Environment for Geoinformation DB Data base; Dissemination block (Canada) DBB Deutsche Bundesbahn DBDB Digital Bathymetry Data Base (U.S. government) DBH Diameter at breast height DBI Database Indexing; Database Interface DBMS Database management system DBPPWG Data Base Population Planning Working Group DBPWG Data Base Population Working Group DBR Dienst Bodemkartering (Suriname) DBS Data Base Specifications; Direct broadcast satellites DC District Chief; District of Columbia; Div. Chief; Dublin Core D.C. District of Columbia DCA Dept. of Community Affairs (Montana) DC&A Data Collection and Analysis DCASS Digital Cartographic Software System DCDB Digital Cartographic Data Base DCDSTF Digital Cartographic Data Standards Task Force (U.S.) DCE Data Communication Equipment; Distributed Computing Environment DCF Digital Cartographic File DCHUM Digital Chart Update Manual (USDMA) DCI Differential Corrections, Inc.; Director of Central Intelligence DCMI Dublin Core Metadata Initiative DCN Direccion de Cartografia Nacional (Venezuela); Document control number DCP Dept. of city planning; Digital Cartographic Production; Data collection platform DCPS Digital Cartographic Production Segment DCR Design Concept Review DCRM Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials DCRM(C) Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Cartographic) DCS Digital Cartography Section; Digital color separate; Directorate of Colonial Surveys (U.K.); Data collection system; Digital Cartographic Studio DCSE Diba Consulting Software Engineers DCS/RSE Data collection system receiving site equipment DCST Data collection system tape DCT Direction Topographique et du Cadastre (Congo) DCW Digital Chart of the World (USDMA) DD Data dictionary; Dewey Decimal; Decimal degrees DDA Data descriptive area DDAC Deutscher Automobil-Club DDC Dewey Decimal classification; Digital data conversion DDCMP Digital Data Communication Message Protocol DDE DOE Data Explorer (US Dept. of Energy) DDES Digital Data Editing System DDF Data descriptive file DDG La direction des documents gouvernementaux (La Bibliotheque et des Archives du Canada) DDI Design Data Inc. DDIS Depository Distribution Information System (USGPO) DDL Data Definition Language DDM Documents Data Miner; Digital Distance Model; Dynamic Digital Map DDN Defense Data Network DDPO Defense Dissemination Program Office (U.S.) DDPS Desktop Digital Photogrammetry System (3D Mapper Pty. Ltd.) DDR Data descriptive record DDS Digital Data Storage DDTI Digital Data Technologies, Inc. DE Data extraction; Delaware DEA David Evans and Associates, Inc. dec. Declination DEC Digital Equipment Corp. DED Data Element Dictionary DE-DEM Drainage-Enforced DEM DEIS Draft environmental impact statement del. Delineation; delineator Del. Delaware delt. Delineator DEM Digital Elevation Model; Digital elevation matrix DEM-G Digital Elevation Model--Graphic (coordinates) DEM-P Digital Elevation Model--Planar (coordinates) DEMR Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada DEMVFY Digital Elevation Model Verify (verification software) Dep. Deputy; Departement DEP Dept. of Environmental Protection Dept. Department DES Digital Editing Station DE/S Data Extraction Segment DESI Diversified Energy Services, Inc. DEW Distant Early Warning Line DFAD Digital Feature Analysis Data (U.S. government) DFC Digital Futures Coalition DFG Dept. of Fish and Game DFLIP Digital Flight Information Publication DFIRM Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map DFO Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada) DFW Dept. of Fish and Wildlife DGC Direct Geodetic Constraint (software) DGCM Direct Geodetic Constraint Method DGDF Digital Geospatial Data Files DGEC Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos (Costa Rica) DGF Dept. of Game and Fish DGG Direccion General de Geografia (Mexico) DGGM Direccion General de Geologia y Minas (Colombia) DGGS Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (Alaska); Directorate General of Geological Surveys (Iraq) DGI Direktorat Geologi (Indonesia) DGIAI Direccion General de Integracion y Analisis de la Informacion (Mexico) DGIS Direct Graphics Interface Standard DGIWG Digital Geographic Information Working Group DGfK Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Kartographie DGK 5 Deutsche Grundkarte 1:5 000 DGM Div. des Gites Mineraux de l'Assn. Geologique du Canada; Direction de la Geologie et des Mines (Burkina Faso); Direccion General de Mineria (Dominican Republic) DGMG Direccion General de Minas y Geologia (Venezuela) DGMP Direccion de Geologia, Minas y Petrolio (Costa Rica) DGN Domestic geographic name DGNR Domestic Geographic Names Report (U.S.) DGO Direccion General de Oceanografia (Mexico) DGP Digital Graphic Product DGPA Direccion General de la Produccion Agraria (Spain) DGPS Differential Global Positioning System; Differential Global Positioning Satellite DGRM Direccion General de Recursos Minerales (Panama) DGS Dept. of Geological Survey (Botswana); Delaware Geological Survey DGSE Dept. of Geological Survey and Exploration (Burma) DGU Danmarks Geologiske Undersogelse DH Drill hole D.H. Double hydrant DHI Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut; Defense Hydrographic Initiative (USDMA) DHN Directoria de Hidrografia e Navegac~ao (Brazil) DI Data Integration; Digital image DIA Defence Intelligence Agency (U.S.); Dept. of Indian Affairs; Dept. of International Affairs DIAL Digital Image Analysis Laboratory (Univ. of Arizona); Differential Absorption LiDAR (Optech) diam. Diameter DIAM Defense Intelligence Agency Manual DiAP Digital Image Analytical Plotter (ISM) DID Data information delivery; Data information description; Digital Image Data DIDS Digital Information Display System (U.S.) DIELOG DAASC Integrated E-Mail Logistics System (USDMA) DIES Digital Image Enhancement System DIF Data Integration Function; Data Interchange Format; Display Information Facility; Document Interchange Format (U.S. Navy) difSAR Differential SAR DIGCAT Digital Catalog DIGEST Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard DIGIT Digitally Integrated Geographic Information Technologies (laboratory, Univ. of Utah Geography Dept.) DILIGENT Digital Library Infrastructure on Grid Enabled Technology (EC) DIM Digital Image Matching DIME Dual Independent Map Encoding (U.S. Bureau of the Census) DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung Dinageca Direcc~ao Nacional de Geografia e Cadastro (Mozambique) DINO Data in Ontario (organization) DIP Data Integration Program DIPS Digital Image Processing System DIRS Digital Image Rectification/Registration System DIS Distributed Information System; Draft International Standard (ISO) DISGIS Distributed Geographical Information Systems DISHIDROS Dinas Hidro Oceanografi (Indonesia) Dist. District DISTDAHS Distributed Satellite Telemetry Data Handling System Div. Division DKDGS Det Kongelige Danske Geografiske Selskab DL Data logging DLA Diffusion-limited aggregation DLCW Department of Land and Water Conservation (NSW) DLG Digital Line Graph DLG-E Digital Line Graph--Enhanced DLGF Digital Line Graph--Framework DLG-O Digital Line Graph--Optional DLG2DEM Digital Line Graph to Digital Elevation Model (production software) DLG-3 Digital Line Graph--level 3 DLI Digital Library Initiative (U.S.); Data Liberation Initiative (Canada); Dept. of Land Information DLL Windows Dynamic Link Library DLMS Digital Landmass System DLNR Dept. of Land and Natural Resources DLO Document-like object DLR Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. DLS Dominion Land Survey (Canada); Dept. of Lands and Survey (Guyana); Dept. of Lands and Surveys (Cyprus) DLT Digital linear tape DLWC Dept. of Land and Water Conservation (Australia) DM Departamento de Minas (Honduras); Data mining DMA Defense Mapping Agency (U.S.); Designated Market Areas (USBC TIGER) DMAAC Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center DMAFF Defense Mapping Agency Feature File; Defense Mapping Agency Feature Format DMAHTC Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic Topographic Center DMAIAGS Defense Mapping Agency Inter-American Geodetic Survey DMAODS Defense Mapping Agency Office of Distribution Services DMASPOEM Defense Mapping Agency Special Program Office for Exploitation Modernization DMA TC Defense Mapping Agency Topographic Center (U.S.) DMATC Defense Mapping Agency Topographic Center (U.S.) DMAUSE DMA Utility Software Environment (USDMA) DMC Disaster Monitoring Constellation (BNSC) DMCA Digital Millenium Copyright Act DME Distance measuring equipment; Dept. of Mines and Energy (Nova Scotia) DMGIS Data, Map and Government Information Services (Univ. of Toronto Library) DMI Digital Mapping, Inc. DMMG Direccion Nacional de Mineria y Geologia (Uruguay) DMMR Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources (Saudi Arabia) DMP Digital Map Products (Firm) DMR Dept. of Mineral Resources (New South Wales) DMRS Data Management and Retrieval System DMRT Dept. of Mineral Resources of Thailand DMS Data Management System; Desktop Mapping System (R-WEL, Inc.); Drawing Management System; Defense Mapping School (USDMA); Defense Message System (USDoD); Distribution Management System; Degrees, minutes, seconds DMSI Data Management Segment Interface Control Document DMSO Defense Mapping School Operations Office (USDMA) DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DMT Digital Mapping Techniques DMTI Desktop Mapping Technologies Inc. DMU Defense Mapping Unit (Singapore); Distance measuring unit DMW Daft, McCune, Walker DN Digital Number DNC Digital Nautical Chart DNPM Departamento Nacional de Produc~ao Mineral (Brazil) DNPCT Direction National de Production Cartographique et Topographique (Mali) DNR Dept. of Natural Resources DNRC Dept. of Natural Resources and Conservation (Montana) DNREP Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection (Kentucky) DNT Direccion Nacional de Topografia (Uruguay) DNR Dept. of Natural Resources Do. Ditto (the same) DO Digital Ortho; District office DOA Dept. of Agriculture Doc. Document DOC Dept. of Commerce DOD Dept. of Defense DOE Dept. of Energy DOGAMI Dept. of Geology and Mineral Industries (Oregon) DOH Dept. of Health DOI Dept. of the Interior; Digital object identifier; Document object identifier DOM Document Object Model DOMSAT Domestic Communications Satellite System DOQ Digital orthophoto quadrangle DOQQ Digital orthophoto quarter quadrangle DORIS Decision-Oriented Resource Information System (Ventura County, Calif.); Doppler obitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite DOS Directorate of Overseas Surveys (U.K.); Dept. of State; Digital Orthophoto System; Disc Operating System DOSLI Dept. of Survey and Land Information (New Zealand) DOT Dept. of Transportation DP Data production; Digital Photogrammetry DPE Data processing environment; data processing equipment DPED Dept. of Planning and Economic Development dpi Dots per inch DPI Dots per inch DPIE Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy (Australia) DPL Data Programming Language; Designated place DPMA Data Processing Management Assn. DPPDB Digital Point Positioning Data Base DPS DEM Production System; Digital Production System (USDMA) Dpt. Department DPW Dept. of public works DPWS Digital Photogrammetric Work Station DQDB Distributed-Queue Dual Buses DQQ Digital Quarter Quadrangle Dr. Drive DR Data record(s); Direct Reflex (Trimble) DRAPE Digital Raster Acquisition Project for the East DRAPP Denver Regional Aerial Photography Program DRBC Delaware River Basin Commission DRC Democratic Republic of Congo DRCOG Denver Regional Council of Governments DRF Digital Raster File DRG Digital Raster Graphic; Davey Resource Group DRGM Direction des Recherches gologiques et minires (Niger) DRGP Digital Representation of Graphic Products DRGS Direct Readout Ground Station DRIS Digital Research and Instructional Services (Univ. of Virginia) DRO Digital Revision Overlay DS Digital subsystem D.S. District Surveyor DSD Digital Sailing Directions DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project DSF Delivery sequence file (U.S. Postal Service) DSGM Direcc~ao de Servicos de Geologia e Minas (Angola); Direccion del Servicio Geografico Militar (Paraguay) DSGZ Dept. of the Surveyor General (Zimbabwe) DSIR Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research (Australia, New Zealand) DSL Dept. of Surveys and Lands (Botswana); Data Service Laboratory DSM Directorate of Surveys and Mapping (South Africa); Dept. of Surveys and Mapping (Botswana); Digital stereo model; Digital surface model DSN Deep Space Network; Dataset Name; Data source name DSNP Dassault-Sercel NP DSP Dept. of State Planning; Depository Services Program (Canada) DSPW Digital Photogrammetric Workstation (USCE) DSS Digital Sensor System (Applanix or EMERGE ) DS/S Data Services Segment DSSSL Document Style Semantic and Specification Language DSU Digital Standard Update DTAD Digital Terrain Analysis Data DTD Digital Terrain Data; Digital Topographic Data (Natural Resources Canada); Document Type Definition DTED Digital Terrain Elevation Data (U.S. government) DTG Digital tape generation DTM Digital Terrain Model (or Modeling) DTOP Digital Topographic Data DTS Digital transmission system DTSS-P Digital Topographic Support System Prototype DTW Desk-top Workstation DUMC Dutch Union Map Catalogue DV Daily Value DVD Digital video disc; Digital versatile disc DVNP Death Valley National Park DVP Digital Video Plotter DW Data warehousing DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst DWF Drawing Web Format DWM Digital Web Map (Idaho Geological Survey) DWR Dept. of Water Resources DXF Drawing Interchange File; Digital Exchange Format DXM Data eXchange Manager DySIS Dynamic Software and Integrated Solutions, Inc. D-2 National Interest Lands, Section D-2, Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act D3 Digital Design Data E East; Electronic; Elevator (open); Einwohner = inhabitant EA Environmental assessment EAC Engineering Accreditation Commission (ABET) EAF East African Force (UK) EAFS Effective Aerial Film Speed EAOS Environment Australia Online Service EAP Environmental Affairs Program Earthsat Earth Satellite Corp. EAS-E Engineering and Survey-Exchange EBAMCO Electronic Book and Map Company EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code EBR Electron Beam Recorder EBRPD East Bay Regional Park District (California) EBX Electronic book exchange EC Electronic control; European Community; European Commission ECAI Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative ECDIS Electronic Chart Display and Information System (U.S.) ECE E. Coyote Enterprises ECEF EarthCentered EarthFixed ECEY Every City, Every Year (Aerials Express) ECI Election Commission of India ECPD Engineering Council for Professional Development ECRF Earth Centered Reference Frame ECS Electronic Charting Systems (NOAA) Ed. Editor; edition ED Elevation data; Enumeration district E.D. Eastern District EDA Electronic design automation; Exploratory data analysis EDC EROS Data Center (LIA); Electronic digital computer; Environmental Data Center (California) EDD Environmental Data Directory (Australia) EDGE Energy Data Geographical Explorer (Petroconsultants, Inc.) EDI Electronic Data Interchange; Electronic Devices Inc. EDIES EROS Digital Image Enhancement Systems EDIFACT Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport EDINA Edinburgh Data and Information Access EDIPS EROS Digital Image Processing System EDIS Environmental Data and Information Service; Electrical Distribution Information System (Santee Cooper) EDITOR ERTS Data Interpretation and Tenex Operations Recorder EDM Electronic distance measurement; Electronic distance meter EDMAS Environmental Dose Modeling and Analysis System EDMI Electronic distance measuring instrument(s) EDMS Electronic document management system(s) EDP Electronic data processing EDS Electronic Data Systems Corp.; Engineering Design System; Environmental Data Service (NOAA) EDT Eastern Daylight Time EdUC Education User Conference (ESRI) EEC European Economic Community EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone E.F. Eisenbahnfaehre EFFIS European Forest Fire Information System EGA Enhanced Graphics Adaptor EGII European Geographic Information Infrastructure EGIS European GIS EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service EGS European Geophysical Society; Economic geology series EGSMA Geological Survey and Mining Authority (Egypt) EHS Extremely hazardous materials EIGS Ethiopian Inst. of Geological Survey EIM Environmental information management eingesch. eingeschossig eis. eisern = iron EIS Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental information system Eisb. Brck. Eisenbahnbrucke = Railroad bridge EIWG Earth Imaging Working Group ELC End of line code ELMO Electronic Map Ordering El.W. Elektrizitatswerk = electric power station EM Electromagnetic E.M. Mining Engineer EMA Environmental Management Agency; Ethopian Mapping Authority EMAIL Electronic Mail EMAP Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (U.S. EPA) EMC Eastern Mapping Center (USGS) EMF Enhanced Meta Files (Windows) EMIP European Market for Infrastructural Projects EMMMA Environmental Mercury Mapping, Modeling and Analysis EMPS Elevation Matrix Processing System EMR Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada; Electromagnetic radiation EMS Electromagnetic spectrum; Engineering Mapping Solutions (Firm) ENC Electronic Navigational Charts (NOAA) E.N.E. East-northeast Eng. Dept. Engineering Dept.; Dept. of Engineers Engr. Bn. Engineer Battalion ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ENID Endnote ID E-N&N Electronic News and Notes (WAML) ENSG Ecole Nationale des Sciences Geographiques ENTR Entrance entw. Entworfen = Drawn entworf. Entworfen = Drawn ENVISAT Environmental Satellite EO Earth observation EOCAP Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program EODMS Earth Observations Data Management Systems EOF End of File EOS Earth Observing System; Greek National Mountaineering Assn. EOSAT Earth Observation Satellite (Company) EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data and Information System EOT End of Text EOTD Enhanced observed time difference EP End Point EPA Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.) EPB Earth Physics Branch (Canada) EPI Electronic Position Indicator EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon EPP Educational Partnership Program (Topcon) EPS Encapsulated PostScript ER Economic region (Canada) ERA Electric Records Archives (NARA) ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (or Sensor) ERCE Groupe d'Etudes de Recherches Critiques d'Espace (Universite du Quebec, Montreal) ERDAS Earth Resources Data Analysis System ERDC Earth Resources Data Center (ERIM); Engineer Research and Development Center (USACE) ERDL Engineer Research and Development Laboratories EREP Earth Resources Experiment Package (Skylab) ERIM Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan ERIN Earth Resources Information Network; Environmental Resource Information Network (Australia) ERIS Earth Resources Inventory System; Earth Resources Infomation System ERL Environmental Research Laboratories (NOAA); Earth Resources Laboratory (NASA) ERLAS Earth Resources Laboratory Application Software ERM Earth Resource Mapping (Firm) EROS Earth Resources Observation Satellite; Earth Resources Observation System ERP Enterprise resource planning ERPANET Electronic Resource Preservation and Access Network ERR Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg fur die Besetzten Gebiete ERRSAC Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Center (NASA) ERS Earth Remote Sensing (satellite) ERSAC Environmental Remote Sensing Applications Centre (United Arab Emirates) ERSAL Environmental Remote Sensing Analysis Laboratory (Oregon State Univ.) ERSAR Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar ERSC Egyptian Remote Sensing Center ERSP Epipolar Rectified Stereo Pair ERTS Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERSUN Environmental Remote Sensing Unit (British Aerospace Space Systems, Ltd.) ESA Egyptian Survey Authority; European Space Agency; Earth Sciences Associates ESC European Seismological Commission ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific ESD Engineering Services Dept. (Qatar) ESDA Earth Sciences Data Standards (council); Exploratory spatial data analysis ESDD Earth Science Data Directory (USGS) ESDI Earth Science Data Interface ESE Earth Science Enterprise E.S.E. East-southeast ESEM Earth Systems Engineering and Management ESI EagleScan Inc.; Enironmental Sensitivity Index ESIC Earth Science Information Center (USGS); Earth Sciences Information Centre (Canada) ESIG Exemplary Systems in Government award (URISA) ESIM Earth Science Information Manager ESIN Earth Science Information Network ESIO Earth Science Information Office ESIP Earth Science Information Partners ESIS Earth Science Information System ESL Electromagnetic Systems Laboratories, Inc. ESMI European Spatial Metadata Infrastructure ESR Engineering Surveys Reproduction Ltd. ESRI Environmental Systems Research Inst., Inc. ESSA Environmental Science Service Administration ESSC Earth System Science Center (Pennsylvania State Univ.) ESSHC European Social Science History Conference ESSI Earth Search Sciences Inc. ESSIC Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center (Univ. of Maryland) E. St. Eisenbahn Station = railway station EST Eastern Standard Time ES&T Environmental Science and Technology ESV EarthSystemsVisualizer ET Frame enclosed elevator with self-closing traps ETF European Transfer Format ETL Engineer Topographic Laboratories (USCE); Extract, transform, load ETM Enhanced Thematic Mapper ETM+ Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus EU European Union EUB Alberta Energy and Utilities Board EUROGI European Umbrella Organisation for Geographic Information EVC East View Cartographic (Firm) EVI Enhanced vegetation index EVO Ernst Volker (Oldenburg, Germany) EWP Executive Wilderness Programmes Ex. doc. Executive document EXIF Extensible Image File Format F Fahrenheit; Flat FA Fire alarm box FAA Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.) FAAT Fully Analytical Aerotriangulation FAC Feature analysis code(s) FACC Feature and Attribute Coding Catalog FACE Field Ancillary Computer Effort FACM Florida Assn. of Cadastral Mappers FACS Feature Attribute Coding Standard; Feature Attribute Coding System Fahrb. Fahrbahn = roadway FAO Food and Agricultural Organization (United Nations) FAPAR Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation FAQ Frequently Asked Question(s) FARC Federal Archives and Record Center FAS Foreign Agricultural Service(USDA) FAST Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Fb. Fabrik = Factory FB Freytag-Berndt und Artaria FBN Federal base network (U.S.) FC Field component; Field completion FCC False color composite; Federal Communications Commission (U.S.) FCM Feature change map FCT Forestry Commission Tasmania FCW Federal Computer Week (journal) FDDI Fiber Digital Data Interface FDEP Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection FDIS Formal Draft International Standard (ISO) FDLP Federal Depository Library Program (US GPO) FDLS Fiji Dept. of Lands and Survey FDPP Framework Demonstration Projects Program (FGDC) FE Feature extraction; Field engineer; Frame enclosed elevator F.E. Forest Engineer fe. Fecit (maker) FEAT Alternate Feature Identification Code fec. Fecit (maker) FED Federal electoral district (Canada); Field-emission displays FedUC Federal User Conference (ESRI) FEE Feature Extraction Environment FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency (U.S.) FEP Feature Extraction Processor FES Feature Extraction Segment FESWMS Finite Element Surface Water Model System FEWS Feature Extraction Workstation FGCC Federal Geodetic Control Committee (U.S.) FGCS Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee (U.S.) FGDC Federal Geographic Data Committee (U.S.) FGEF Federal Geographic Exchange Format (U.S.) FGI Free Government Information (US) F.G.S. Fellow of the Geological Society FGS Florida Geological Survey FGT Federal Geographic Technology (U.S.) FH Field headquarters FHA Federal Highway Administration (U.S.) FHWA Federal Highway Administration (U.S.) FICCDC Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography (U.S.) FIG Federation Internationale des Geom`etres = International Federation of Surveyors FII Fundacion Instituto de Ingeneiria FILS Federal Government Information Locator System FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard(s); Flagstaff Image Processing System FIRM Flood Rate Insurance Map FIRMS Flood Rate Insurance Maps FL Florida; Focal length; Function libraries Fla. Florida FLHO Federal Lands Highway Office (U.S.) FLI-IWG Future of Land Imaging Interagency Working Group (US) FLIMAP Fast Laser Imaging Mapping and Profiling (system) FLIP Flight Information Publication (NGA) FLIR Forward-looking Infrared FLL Waterfall FLOPS Floating Point Operations per Second FM Facilities management; Field manual F.M. Field Marshall FMC Federal Maritime Commission (U.S.) FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (US) FME Feature Manipulation Engine (Safe Software Inc.) FMGIS Flight management geographic information system FMLIS Federal Mineral Lands Information System FMP Field Pack Mobile Professional (All Points Software) FMS Facility Mapping Systems Inc.; Flight Managing System FMS/AC Facility Mapping System for AutoCAD FNC Foreign Names Committee (USBGN) FNESA Federation of New England Surveyors Assn.s FNIB Foreign Names Information Bulletin FNMOC Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (U.S.) FO Field office F.O. Field Officer; Foreign Office FOC Full operational capability FOF Filtering optical fiber FOGs Fiber Optic Gyros FOM Field Operations Manual FORTRAN Formula Translation (computer language) FOUO For official use only FOV Field of view fPAR Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation FPC Federal Power Commission; Federal Publishers Committee FPT Full production training FPU Floating point unit FRA Federal Railroad Administration (U.S.) FRAP Fire and Resource Assessment Program (Calif. Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection) FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (IFLA) FRC Federal Records Center (U.S.) F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society FRI Forest Resource Inventory Map (Ontario) FRM Farm FRP Federal Radio-navigation Plan F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society FS Fire station; Forest Service (U.S.); Federal Survey Div. (Nigeria) FSA Farm Service Agency (USDA) FSLUPC Federal/State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska FSMS Florida Surveying and Mapping Society FSO Field Support Office (U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories) FSPLS Florida Society of Professional Land Surveyors FSR Flight Summary Report FSRAMIS Forest Service Range Management Information System FT Field terminator FTA Federal Transit Administration (US) Fth. Fathom FTL Future Temporal Logic FTM Foiben Taosarintanin' i Madagasikara FTP File Transfer Protocol FU Field unit Fur. Furlong Fw. Fussweg = Footpath FWPCA Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (U.S.) FWS Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S.) FYROM Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia FZDS Flood Zone Determination Services G Geometry; Imperial guards G&M Geography and Map; geography and Map Div. G&O Greenhorne & O'Mara Inc. Ga. Georgia GA Georgia; Geographic access; Geographical Association GAC Geological Assn. of Canada; Global Area Composite; Geospatial Advisory Committee (USFS) GAF Gesellschaft fur Angewandte Fernerkundung GAMS GIS azimuth measuring system GANS Geomatics Association of Nova Scotia GAP Gap Analysis Program (USNBS); Geographic Application Program; Google Ancient Places GAT Geography Assn. of Thailand GB Gigabyte; Geologische Bundesanstalt (Austria) GBA GeoBusiness Assn.; George Butler Associates, Inc. GBAMS GBS Master Series, Inc. GBAUG Greater Boston Autodesk User Group GBf Guterbahnhof = freight depot GBF Geographic Base File GBFP Georgia Basin Futures Project (Digital Library) GBI Green biomass index GBIS Geo-Based Information System; Global Business Intelligence Solutions (IBM) Gbo. Grabador = engraver GBS Geograpic Base System GCCS Global Command, Control System (USDMA) GCDB Geographic Coordinate Data Base (U.S.) GCDIS Global Change Data and Information System GCG Geocartographics Subdivison (Canada) GCHC Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center (U.S.) GCLI GIS in Canadian Libraries Initiative GCM General circulation model; Global climate model; General Command of Mapping (Turkey) GCMC Geospatial Center and Map Collection (Ball State University) GCP Ground control point(s); Geodetic control point(s) GCRA Geographic and Cartographic Research and Applications Section GCRS Gulf Centre for Remote Sensing (Firm) GCSS Global Combat Support System GCT Greenwich Civil Time GCTP General Coordinate Transformation Package (software); Geographic Coordinate Transformation Package (software) GD Geologic Div. (USGS); Geospatial data; Graphic digitization GDA Geographic Data Analysis System GDAL Geospatial Data Abstraction Library GDC Geographic Data Council GDD Graphics Data Display Manager; GIS Data Depot GDDD Geographical Data Description Directory GDE Graphic Developer's Engine (FCAD Software, Inc.) GDF Geographic data file GDHS Ground Data Handling System (GFSC) GDM Geospatial data management GDN Geography Discipline Network GDS Graphic Data Systems Corp; Grumman Data Systems; Geo-Data System; Geographic Data Service (U.S.) GDT Geographic Data Technology Inc.; Geophysical diffraction tomography GDTA Groupement pour le Developpement de la Teledetection Aerospatiale (France) GE General Electric; Geographic equivalent; Google Earth GEBCO General bathymetric chart of the oceans = Carte generale bathymetrique des oceans GECCo Geospatially Enabling Community Collaboration (program, GITA) GEDS General Environmental Data Base System (Florida) GEGMR General Establishment of Geology and Mineral Resources (Syria) GEHC Grup d'Estudia d'Historia de la Cartografia GEM Graphical Environment Manager GEMS Global Environment Monitoring System; GeoMap Society GEO Geospatial Metadata Application Profile (USA); Geostationary Earth orbit; Global Environment Outlook GEOBAL Servicio Geologico de Bolivia GEO-CAT Geographic catalog of political and statistical areas Geocorr Geographic Correspondence Engine GEODESY Geospatial Data and Exploration System (Harvard Univ.) Geog. Geography GEOINT Geographical intelligence Geol. Geology GEOLAN Geological (survey) local area network GeoLoB Geospatial Line of Business GEOREF Geological Reference (system) GEOS Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite GEOSAT Geodesy Satellite GEOSEC Geographic Security GeoTMS Geographic Town Management System (Des Lauriers & Assoc. Inc.) GEOZAVOD Zavod za Geoloska i Geofizicksa Istrazivanja (Yugoslavia) GEP Google Earth Pro Ges. Gesamt- GES Geographic Entry System gest. Gestechen = Engraved gez. Gezeichnet = Designed GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (U.S.) GFOSS Geospatial Free and Open Source Software GGBR Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve (Calif.) GGMC Guyana Geology and Mines Commission GGNRA Golden Gate National Recreation Area (Calif.) GGRF Galileo Geodetic Reference Frame GGS Georgia Geologic Survey GGU Gronlands Geologiske Undersogelse GI Geographic information; Geospatial information GIA Geographic information analysis; Geographic information and analysis; GPS International Assn.; Geomatics Industry Association GIAA Geometrics Industry Assn. of America GIAC Geomatics Industry Assn. of Canada; Geographic Information Advisory Council (Kentucky) GIAL Geographic Information and Analysis Laboratory (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo) GIB Geographic Information Board (Florida); Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin; G.I. Barnett & Son GICC Geographic Information Coordinating Committee (Colorado) GICS Geographic Identification Code Scheme GID Geodaetisk Institut (Denmark) GIDW General inverse-distance weighted interpolation model .GIF Graphics Interchange File; Graphics Interchange Format GIFTS Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer GIG Geologic Inquiries Group GILS Government Information Locator Service GIMS Geographic Information Management Systems Committee (ASCM/ASPRS) GINIE Geographic Information Network in Europe GIO Geographic Information Officer; Geographic Investigations Office (USGS); Geospatial Information Office (USGS) GIPS Generalized Image Processing Sytstem GIR Geographic information retrieval GIRAS Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (USGS) GIS Geographic(al) information system(s); Geohydrologic Information System; Geoscience Information Society; Global Indexing System GISCI GIS Certification Institute GISCO Geographic Information System of the European Commission GISDEX Federal Geographic Information and Spatial Data Exposition and Conference (U.S.) GIScience Geographic information science GISIC Geographical Information Systems International Group GISMO GIS MOdeling (ERDAS) GISOM Generating Information and Scanning Ohio Maps (Ohio State Univ. Center for Mapping) GISP GIS professional GISS Goddard Institude of Space Studies GISS-SG Geographic Information Systems and Science Specialty Group (AAG) GIST Geographic Information System for Transportation GIT Geomatics information technology; General Information Technology; Global Imaging Technologies (Firm) GITA Geospatial Information & Technology Assn. GITC Geomatics Information Trading Center GITCO Government Information Technology Committee (GODORT) GIU Geographic Information Unit (US Dept. of State) GIV Geologic Information Visualization (software) GKP Geodeticky a Kartograficky Podnik v Praze GKS Graphics Kernal System Gl. Gleis GLAB Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt GLAB-W Geologisches Landesamt Baden-Wurttemberg GLAI Green leaf area index GLAN-W Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System; Geologisches Landesamt des Saarlandes GLAS-H Geologisches Landesamt Schleswig-Holstein GLCF Global Land Cover Facility GLDAS Global Land Data Assimilation System (NASA) GLI Global Imager GLIS Geographic Land Information System (USGS); Geographic and Land Information Society GLM General linear model; GEO Lightning Mapper GLO General Land Office (U.S.) GLOBE Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment GLONASS Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (Russia) GLOSS Global Observation Surveillance System GLR-P Geologisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz GLRS Geoscience Laser Ranging System GLT Geospatial Light Table (ERDAS IMAGINE) GLTN Global Land Tool Network GM Geography and Map; Geologic map GMAT Greenwich Mean Astronomical Time G.M. Grist mill GMD Geologisch Mijnbouwkundige Dienst van Suriname GMDC Geospatial Map and Data Centre (Ryerson University) GME Geohydrologic Map Editor GML Geography Markup Language GMR Government Micro Resources Inc. GMS Geostationary meteorological satellite(s); Geographic Measurement Systems (Firm) G.M.S.I. Ground Modeling Systems Inc.; Gandalf Mobile Systems Incorporated; GMSI Inc. is a firm (not an abbreviation) GMT Greenwich Mean Time; Generic Mapping Tools G.M.T. Giuseppi Maria Terreni GN Grid north GNC Geologic Names Committee; Global navigation chart GNDB Geographic Names Data Base (US National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) GNIAG Geomatics Niagara Information Advisory Group GNIS Geographic Names Information System (U.S.) GNMP Gettysburg National Military Park GNS GEOnet Names Server (USNIMA) GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System GNU Geologic Names Unit (USGS) GNULEX Geologic Names Unit Lexicon (USGS) GO Geometric Operations G&O Greenhorne & O'Mara, Inc. GoC Government of Canada GODORT Government Documents Round Table (ALA) GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (NASA) GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOMS Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite(s) GoMMapP Gulf of Maine Mapping Portal GOS Geospatial One-Stop GOS-PI Geospatial One-Stop Portal Initiative (Open GIS Consortium) Gov. Governor Gov. Gen. Governor General GP Graphic production; Graphics processor; Geography Program (USGS) GPF Geospatial Prototype Facility GPG Graphic Product Generation GPH Geological Publishing House (China) GPI Graphics Programming Interface; Greenman Pedersen Inc. GPIP General Purpose Image Processor GPM Gestalt Photo Mapper GP.MC Geoprocessing Map Call GP.MCD Geoprocessing Map Call Deamon program GPO Government Printing Office GPOS Government Printing Office Style Manual GPPU Graphic Polygon Processing Utilities GPR Ground-Penetrating Radar GPS Global positioning system(s) GPSDR Global positioning system demonstration receiver GPSIC Global Positioning System Information Center (U.S. Coast Guard); GPS Industry Council GPSOS Global Positioning System Occultation Sensor GPST Global positioning system time GPT GIS Portal Toolkit (ESRI) GPW2 Gridded Population of the World (dataset) GQ Geologic quadrangle GQL Graphical Query Language gr. gross Gr. Grosse GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRAMPS Graphic Map Production System GRASS Geographic Resource Analysis Support System GRB Government Records Branch (Library and Archives of Canada; National Archives of Canada) GRC Generation of reproducible copy; Geoscience Research Corp. GRD Ground Resolved Distance GRDL Geodetic Research and Development Laboratory GRE Geologic Resources Evaluaion (program, US NPS) GRF-N Geographic Reference File-Names GRIDS Grid Referenced Information Display System; Gridded Resource Inventory Data System GRS Geodetic Reference System GRS 80 Geodetic Reference System of 1980 GRSU Geography Remote Sensing Unit (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara) GS Geological Survey (U.S.); Gray scale GSA General Services Administration (U.S.); Geological Society of America; Geological Survey of Alabama GSC Geological Survey of Canada; Geographic Systems Corp.; Geotronics Service Center; Geocode Service Center (HUD) GSD Ground sample distance; Geological Survey Dept. (Malawi); Geological Survey Div. (Jamaica); Geodetic Survey Div. (Natural Resources Canada) GSDI Global Spatial Data Infrastructure GSDM Global Spatial Data Model GSDS Global spatial data system GSF Generic Sensor Format GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) GSGS Geographical Section, General Staff (U.K.) GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program GSI Geographical Survey Inst. (Japan); Geological Survey of India; Geological Survey of Iran; Geological Survey Inst. (Japan); Geological Survey of Ireland; Geophysical Services Inc.; Geospatial Systems, Inc. GSJ Geological Survey of Japan GSK Geological Survey of Kenya GSL Geographic Sciences Laboratory (USCE) GSM Graphic Standard Metafile GSMD Geological Survey and Mines Dept. (Swaziland) GSN Geological Survey of Namibia GSNI Geological Survey of Northern Ireland GSP Geological Survey of Pakistan; Geographical statistics program GSPB Geodetic Satellite Policy Board GSPNG Geological Survey Papua New Guinea GSRC Geological Survey Research Committee GSS Geographic support system GSSA Geological Survey South Africa GST Galileo System Time GSTC Geospatial Service and Technology Center (USFS) GSW Geological Survey of Wyoming; GeoScienceWorld GSWA Geological Survey of Western Australia GSZ Geological Survey of Zambia GT Geometry and topology; Greater than; Geologian Tutkimuskeskus = Geological Survey of Finland G.T. Gas tank GTA Greater Toronto Area GTCM Geospatial Technology Competency Model (US Dept. of Labor) GTE Greater than or equal GTI GIS Technology Inc. GTS GPS Timing Simulator (NovAtel Inc.); Great Trigonometrical Survey of India GTUB Geographic tabulation unit base GU Government unit; Guam GUDS Geologicky ustav Dionyz Stur GUGiK Glowny Urzad Geodezji i Kartografii (Poland) GUGK Glavnoe Upravlenie Geodezii i Kartografii (USSR) GUGKK Glavno Upravlenie po Geodezia I Kartografia y Kadaster (Bulgaria) GUI Graphical User Interface GUID Globally unique identifier GUIDE Geomatics Utilization Inventory and Design Environment GUNI Goteborgs Universitet Naturgeografiska Institutionen GUNO Glavnoe Upravlenie Navigatsii i Okeanografii (USSR) GVF Goodness of variance fit GVI Green vegetation index GVis Geographic Visualization GVIS Geographic Visualization GW Gas well (natural); Ground water GWE Global Weather Experiment GWEN Ground Wave Emergency Network (U.S.) GWSI Groundwater site inventory GXL-A GeoImaging Accelerator Aerial (PCI Geomatics and Vexcel Imaging GmbH) GZD Grid Zone Designation h. hoch = high H. Hohe = height; Howitzer ha. Hectare; Hektar HA Hydrologic Investigations Atlas or Hydrologic Atlas (USGS) HABS Historic American Buildings Survey HAC Harbor and Approach Chart HALS Hawaii Assn. of Land Surveyors HANDGPS High Accuracy Nationwide Differential GPS HARN High-Accuracy Reference Network (U.S.) Hauptm. Hauptmann = Captain HAZUS Hazards U.S. HAZUSMH Hazards U.S. multihazard version Hbf Hauptbahnhof = main railway station HBCA Hudson Bay Company Archives HBF Herbert Bismarck Foster HBGN Hawaii Board on Geographic Names HBM Hydrologic bench mark HBMN Hydrologic Bench Mark Network HC Hard copy HCC Heat Capacity Mapping Mission HCDN Hydroclimate Data Network HCFCD Harris County (Texas) Flood Control District HCMM Heat-capacity Mapping Mission HCMR Heat-capacity Mapping Radiometer HCRS Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (U.S.) HD Hydrographic Dept. (Great Britain) HDDT High-Density Digital Tape HDLD Headland HDOP Horizontal Dilution of Precision HDS High-Definition Surveying (Leica Geosystems) HDT High density tape HDT-A High density tape (not geometrically corrected) HDTR High density tape recorder HDTV High-definition television HEIRS Historic Environmental Reporting System (IAO) HEPS High Energy Particle Sensor HeRMIS Heritage Resource Management Information System (PAA) Herst. Herstellung HE/S Hardcopy Exploitation Segment HF High frequency HFA Hydrologic field assistant HFI Hall & Foreman, Inc. Hfn Hafen = port, harbor H-GAC Houston-Galveston Area Countil Hgbf Hauptgueterbahnhof HGCSD Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District (U.S.) .HGL Newlett-Packard Graphics Language format HGML Hyper Graphic Markup Language HGS Halliburton Geophysical Services HHG Household goods (Rand McNally MileMaker) HI Hawaii HIA Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HID Historical Imagery Declassification (NIMA) HIF Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility Hind. Hindustan HIND Geographical Section General Staff (India [Headquarters India]) HIRAN High Range Navigation HIRS High-resolution Infrared Sounder HIS Hydrologic Information System; Hyperspectral imagery HISS Heritage Information Statistical System HIT Horizons Technolgy Inc. HIU Hydrologic Information Unit HJW Hammon, Jensen, Wallen & Associates; HJW GeoSpatial, Inc. HKGA Hong Kong Geographical Assn. HLAB Hessisches Landesamt fur Bodenforschung HLfB Hessisches Landesamt fur Bodenforschung HLL Hill HLLS Hills HLR High level radiation; High level radioactivity HLRS Highway Location Reference Standard HLS Hue, lightness and saturation HLVA Hessisches Landesvermessungsamt HLW High level waste (radioactivity) Hm. Bgs. Hermann Berghaus HMCK Hummock HMGS Hellenic Military Geographical Service HMSO Her/His Majesty's Stationery Office (Great Britain) H.O. Hochofen = blast furnace HOGG History of Geology Group HOM Hotine oblique Mercator Hon. Honorable Hp Haltepunkt = stopping place HP Hewlett-Packard (corp.) HPFS High pressure fire service HPGL Hewlett Packard Graphics Language HPGN High-Precision Geodetic Network HPP High Precision Photogrammetry HPRASA High Plains Regional Aquifer System HQ Headquarters HR House of Representatives; High resolution HRB Highway Research Board HRD High-resolution data HRDB High-resolution Data Base HRDI High-resolution Doppler Imager HRFRS High-resolution Film Recorder Subsystem HRGA High Rate Geographical Areas HRIR High-resolution Infrared Radiometer Hrm. Bghs. Hermann Berghaus HRMSI High Resolution Multispectral Stereo Imager HRV High Resolution Visible HRVIR High Resolution Visible Infrared (scanner) HS High school H.S. H. Schleifmann HSB Humidity Sensor for Brazil (JPL) HSDL High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line HSGT Hitachi Software Global Technology, Ltd. HSI Horizontal Situation Indicator; Habitat Suitability Index HSRC Hydrographic Science Research Center HSRP Hydrographic Services Review Panel (US) H. St. Eisenbahn Haltstelle = railway stop HSV Hue Saturation Value HTC Hydrographic Topographic Center (USDMA) H., T.C. Thomas Campanius Holm HTDP Horizontal Time-Dependent Positioning HTI Horizons Technology, Inc. HTML Hypertext (or HyperText) Markup Language HTS Human terrain systems HUA Hydrologic Unit Area HUC Hydrologic Unit Code HUD Dept. of Housing and Urban Development (U.S.) Hund. Hundred HURRDAT Hurricane Data Set HVC Hue-Value-Chroma H.W. Hochwasser H/W Hardware i Infantry I. Island IA Infrastructure Analyst (BaySys Technologies Inc.); Iowa IACWD Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data IADO Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IAEG International Assn. of Engineering Geologists IAEGS Institute for Advanced Education in Geospatial Sciences IAG International Assn. of Geodesy IAGS Inter-American Geodetic Survey IAH International Association of Hydrogeologists IAHS International Assn. of Hydrological Sciences = Assn. Internationale des Sciences Hydrologiques IAHWG Intergovernmental Ad Hoc Working Group IAKAR Inertially aided kinematic ambiguity resolution IALA International Assn. of Lighthouse Authorities IALS Idaho Assn. of Land Surveyors IAMA International Antiquarian Mapsellers Association IAO Insurers' Advisory Organization IAOO International Assn. of Assessing Officers IAS Image Assessment System IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer IASSIST International Association for Social Science Information Service & Technology IAT Image Annotation Tape; International Atomic Time IATO Italian atlas assembled to order IAWPRC International Assn. for Water Pollution Research and Control IB Isobar IBC International Boundary Commission (U.S.-Canada) IBDF Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal IBG Inst. of British Geographers IBGE Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estadistica IBIS Image-Based Information System IBM International Business Machines (corp.); International boundary marker IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) IBSP Idaho Bureau of State Planning IBWC International Boundary and Water Commission (Mexico-U.S.) IC Integrated circuit(s) I.C. Johannes Condet (engraver) ICA International Cartographic Assn. = Assn. Cartographique Internationale ICACET International Cartographic Assn. Committee on Training ICAITI Instituto Centro Americano de Investigacion y Tecnica Industrial ICAO International Civil Aviation Organiztion ICA-USNC International Cartographic Assn. U.S. National Committee ICC Institut Cartografic de Catalunya; Interstate Commerce Commission (U.S.); International Cartographic Conference ICCP Inst. for Certification of Computer Professionals ICE Information Center for the Environment (UCD); Imagery Cooperative Exchange ICED Intraprofessional Council on Environmental Design ICES Institution of Civil Engineers (UK); Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications ICEX Ice and Climate Experiment ICGC Instituto Cubano de Geodesia y Cartografia ICGI Interagency Committee on Government Information (US) ICGRS Internet-Enabled Continuous Geodetic Reference Station ICGWM International Clearinghouse for Ground Water Models ICHC International Conference on the History of Cartography ICIS Integrated Cadastral Information Society ICITV Institut de la Carte International du Tapis Vegetale ICM Instituto Cartografico Militar ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol ICMSSR Interagency Committee on Meteorological Services and Supporting Research ICONA Instituto Nacional para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza (Spain) ICP Interactive closest points ICR Intelligent Character Reader ICRSE International Center for Remote Sensing Education ICT Information and communication technologies ICW International Computer Works, Inc. ID Identification; Interface device; Idaho; Island IDAS Image Data Analysis Systems IDC International Data Corp. IDCCC Interior Digital Cartographic Coordination Committee (U.S.) IDD Information and data dissemination; Initiative de democratisation des donnees de Statistique Canada IDE Imbedded Drive Electronics IDEN Identification module IDFG Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game IDIMS Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System IDIQ Indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity IDL Idaho Dept. of Lands; Interactive Data Language; Interface Definition Language IDLH Immediately dangerous to life and health IDLS Internet Data Library System (Univ. of Western Ontario) iDNA Integrated Dataset for North America (Rand McNally) IDOT Illinois Dept. of Transportation IDR Interface drawing IDS Information Decision Systems (firm) IDWO Intelligence Div., War Office (U.K.) IDWR Idaho Dept. of Water Resources IEGDR Initial Experimental Gridded Data Record(s) IEMVT Institut d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux IENC Inland Electronic Navigation Charts (USCE) IEOS Integrated Earth Observation System IEP Independent electric plant IERS International Earth Rotation Service IES Inst. for Environmental Sciences IF Frame identification IfAG Institut fur Angewandte Geodasie IFF Interchange Format File (Commodore Amiga) IFLA International Assn. of Library Asociations and Institutions IFN Service de l'Inventaire Forestier National (France) IFOV Instantaneous Field of View IFP Institut Francais de Pondicherry; Institut Francais du Petrole IFR Instrument Flight Regulation IFREMER Institut francais de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer iFS Internet File System (Oracle Corp.) IFSAR Inter-ferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar IFSARE Inter-ferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar for Elevation IG Instytut Geologiczny (Poland) IGA Istituto Geografico de Agostini IGAC Instituto Geografico "Agustin Codazzi" IGBF Institut Geographique de Burkina Faso IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme IGC International Geologic Congress; Intelligent Graphics Controller; Informative Graphics Corp. IGCI Institut Geographique de la Cote d'Ivoire IGCP International Geological Correlation Program; Instituto Geografico e Cadastral (Portugal) IGDC Interagency Geographic Data Committee (U.S.) IGDS Interactive Graphics Design System (software); Intergraph Design Software IGEBU Institut Geographique de Burundi IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specification; International Graphics Exchange System IGF Inset Graphics Format IGFCOT Institutul de Geodezie, Fotogrammetrie, Cartografie si Organizarea Teritoriului (Romania) IGG Institutul de Geologie si Geofizica (Romania) IGGSP Instituto Geografico e Geologico de S~ao Paulo IGIF International Geographic Information Foundation IGIS Integrated Geographic Information System; Intelligent GIS IGL Interactive Graphics Library IGLD 85 International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 IGM Instituto Geografico Militar IGME Inst. of Geology and Mineral Exploration (Greece); Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espa~na IGMI Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano IGN Institut geographique national; Instituto Geografico Nacional IGNB Institut Geographique National (Belgium) IGNC Institut Geographique National Congolaise IGNTG Instituto Geografico Nacional "Tommy Guardia" (Panama) IGPT Interagency Geospatial Preparedness Team (US) IGS Information & Graphics Systems Inc.; International GPS Service; Idaho Geological Survey; Indiana Geological Survey; Geological Survey of Israel I.G.S. John Gaspar Scheuchzer IGSN71 International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 IGT Integrated GPS Technologies Inc. IGU International Geographical Union; Instituto Geografico Universitario (Dominican Republic) IGUG Intergraph Graph Users Group IGWMC International Ground Water Modeling Center IGY International Geophysical Year IGZa Institut Geographique du Zaire IHA Instituto Hidrografico de la Armada (Chile) IHAC Instituto Hidrografico de la Armada, Chile IHB International Hydrographic Bureau IHD International Hydrological Decade IHDC Iowa Heritage Digital Collection IHGC International Health Geographics Conference IHO International Hydrographic Organization IHP International Hydrologic Program IHSI Institut Haitien de Statistique de d'Informatique IIAF Idaho Image Analysis Facility IICT Instituto de Investigac~ao Cientifica Tropical (Portugal) IIGS Initial Image Generating System IIPL Interactive Image Processing Laboratory IIS Internet Information Server IJAGR International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research IJC International Joint Commission (U.S. & Canada) IKCS I.K. Curtis Services, Inc. IKU Institutt for Kontinentalsokkelundersokelse (Norway) IL Illinois ILC Interim Library Catalog ILEX Interactive Landsat Executive (NASA software) ILH Internationales Landkartenhaus (Stuttgart) ILI Inst. for Land Information ILIM Inst. for Land Information Management (University of Toronto) Ill. Illinois ILLIAC Illinois Institute for Advanced Computation ILMF International LiDAR Mapping Forum ILRIS-3D Intelligent Laser Range Imaging Scanner (Optech) ILS Intelligent Library System (Lockheed Martin) ILWIS Integrated Land and Water Information System (ITC) IM Information management IMA Intermap Analytic IMACS Integrity Monitoring and Control Software (Javad Positioning Systems) IMACUAC Information Management and Computer Utilization Advisory Committee IMADS Interactive Map and Data Server (USFWS) IMAG Information Management Advisory Group IMAGE Integrated Mapping and Geographic Encoding System IMAGE 100 Interactive Multispectral Image Analysis System (GE) IMAN Image Analysis (system); Intermap Analytic Nucleus IMAP Input, Management, Analysis, and Presentation IMC Image Motion Compensator IMCoS International Map Collectors Society IMDA International Map Dealers Assn. .IMG ADRG image format (USDMA) IMGW Instytut Meteorologii i Gospodarki Wodnej (Poland) IMLS Institute of Museum and Library Services (US) IMO International Maritime Organization IMP Integrated Micro Products Inc. IMPAC Image Analysis Computer Package (Egbert Scientific) IMS Intermediate map scale; Image Manipulation System; Internet Map Server (ESRI) IMSI International Microcomputer Software, Inc. IMT Information Management Technologies (Firm); Internet Media Type IMTA International Map Trade Assn. IMU Inertial measurement unit IMW International Map of the World in. Inch; inches IN Indiana INC Institut National de Cartographie INCA Indian National Cartographic Society INCG Institut National de Cartographie du Gabon; Institut Geographique National Guineen INCITS International Committee for Information Technology Standards Ind. Indiana INDEC Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos (Argentina) INE Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (Ecuador, Guatemala) INEAC Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo INEGI Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas, Geografia e Informatica (Mexico) INETER Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales INFORM Information Network for Operational Resources Management (Arizona) INGEMMET Instituto Geologico Minero y Metalurgico (Peru) INGEO- MINAS Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras (Colombia) INGM Instituto Nacional de Geologia INLT Inlet INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite (organization) INMG Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica (Portugal) INMH Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia y Hidrologia (Ecuador) INPE Instituto das Pesquisas Espaciais (Brazil) INQUA International Union for Quaternary Research INRA Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (France) INRAT Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie INS Inertial Navigation System InSAR Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar INSEE Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (France) INSIDE Interactive Numeric Spatial Information Data Engine (Univ. of Idaho) INSMAP International Symposium on Marine Positioning INSPIRE Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe Inst. Institute INSTAAR Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research (Univ. of Colorado) INTA Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (Argentina) INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite (organization) InterPARES International Research on Permanent Authentic Records Electronic Systems INTRISCA Integrated Resource Inventory for South-Central Alaska INUPAL Informaciones Unidas para America Latina (Chile) IO Input/output; Interior orientation I/O Input/output IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission; Initial operational capability ION Institute of Navigation IOP International Organisation of Palaeobotany; Interagency Operating Picture (USGS) IOS Institute of Oceanographic Science (Great Britain) IP Internet protocol; Image point IPA Imagery Product Archive (USDMA) IPAM Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPCS Image Production Control System IPE Image processing engine IPF Image Processing Facility (GSFC) IPGP Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPRG Inst. for Petroleum Resources and Geophysics (Israel) IPLSA Illinois Professional Land Surveyors Assn. IPOSTEL Instituto Postal Telegrafico (Venezuela) IPP Integrated Plotting Package IPS Image processing system; Inertial Positioning System IPT Informatica per il Territorio; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (Sao Paulo, Brazil); Integrated Product Team IPX Internet Packet Exchange IPY International Polar Year IR Imaging Radiometer; Infrared I.R. Imperiale Reale IRAT Institut de Recherches en Agronomie Tropicale (France) IRC Intergraph Registered Consultant IR. CH. Iron chimney IR. CH.S.A. Iron chimney with spark arrestor IRD Information Resources Division (Arizona) IRDB Integrated regional database IRDS Information Resource Dictionary System IRF Internal Raster File; Internal Raster Format IRG Inter-Record Gap IRICC Interagency Resource Information Coordination Council IRIS Infrared Interferometer/Spectrometer; Interim Research and Intelligence Service (U.S. Dept. of State); Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology IRIS R&A Research and Analysis Branch, Interim Research and Intelligence Service (U.S. Dept. of State) IRLSA Illinois Registered Land Surveyors Assn. IRRI International Rice Research Inst. IRS Internal Revenue Service (U.S.); Information retrieval system; Indian Remote Sensing (Satellite) IRSA Inst. of Remote Sensing Applications IRWA International Right of Way Assn. IRWD Irvine Ranch Water District Is. Island IS International Standard I.S. John Speed ISA Institute of Surveyors of Australia; Internet Starter Applications; Integrated Survey Area (British Columbia) ISABU Institut des Sciences Agronomiques au Burundi ISAMS Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder ISAPI Internet Server Application Programming Interface ISBD(CM) International Standard Bibliographic Description for Cartographic Materials ISBD(ER) International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources ISC Information Systems Council ISCCP International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project ISCEM International Society of Curators of Early Maps ISD Information Services Div. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISEA Icosahedral Snyder equal area (projection) ISERT Institut Superieur pour les Etudes et Recherches Scientifique et Techniques (Djibouti) ISGS Illinois State Geological Survey ISHM International Society for the History of the Map ISI Image Subsystem Interface; Information Systems Inventory (EPA); Interpretation System, Inc. I-SITE Intelligent Screening of Imagery for Teleophthalmology Isl. Island ISL Island; Illinois State Library ISLP Land-tied island ISLS Islands ISM Interpretive Structural Modeling ISMS International Society for Mine Surveying ISO Imaging Spectrometer Observatory; International Standards Organization ISP Internet service provider ISPI Intermediate-scale Product Inventory ISPLS Indiana Society of Professional Land Surveyors ISPRS International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ISR Information Storage and Retrieval ISRO Indian Space Research Organisation IS&T Information Systems and Technology ISTAT Istituto Centrale di Statistica (Italy) ISTD Inter-Services Topographical Dept. (Great Britain) ISTH Isthmus ISU International System of Units ISURL Indiana State Univ. Remote Sensing Laboratory IT Information technology; Integration Technologies Inc. I.T. Idaho Territory ITA Intelligent Traverse Adjustment ITAA Information Technology Assn. of America ITC International Inst. for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (Netherlands; formerly International Training Centre for Aerial Survey); International Trade Commission ITCA International Topographic Composition Assn. ITD Interim Terrain Data ITE Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (Great Britain) ITF INTERLIS Transfer Format ITFE Inductive terrain feature extraction ITRF International Terrestrial Reference Frame ITRF00 International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 ITRM Information Technology Resouces Management (standard, Virginia) ITRS International Terrestrial Reference System ITS Intelligent transportation system ITSA Independent Travel Stores Assn.; Ingeneria y Topografia, S.A. de C.V. ITU Image Transfer Unit; International Telecommunications Union IUE International Ultraviolet Explorer IUGG International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics IUGS International Union of Geological Sciences IUSM International Union for Surveying and Mapping IVHS Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems IW Information Warfare IWARDS Iowa Water Resources Data System IWIS International Water Information System IWPC Inst. of Water Pollution Control IWRA International Water Resources Assn. I2S International Imaging Systems Inc.

    Copyright � 2011 The Regents of the University of California.All rights reserved. Document maintained on server by: Earth Sciences & Map Library1996. Last updated 2/09/2011.

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